USA Applied Hypersonics

16th AIAA/DLR/DGLR International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference 19-22 Oct 2009
Thomas A. Jackson, Ph.D. Aerospace Propulsion Division Propulsion Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory

Approved for Public Release 88ABW-2009-4321 9 Oct 2009

• Introduction – USAF development approach for hypersonic, air-breathing propulsion • US national efforts in air-launch free-flight • US national efforts in ground-launch hypersonic R&D • USAF/DARPA X-51 Scramjet Engine Flight Experiment • USAF/AUS DSTO HIFiRE Flight 2 • US DARPA FaCET • US TES&T HyV • USAF Robust Scramjet S&T Program • Conclusion

Approved for Public Release 88ABW-2009-4321, 9 Oct 2009


AFRL’s Scramjet Technology Development Approach


Stair-step approach builds upon prior successes
Large Hypersonic Missiles Small Launch Systems


Operationally Responsive Spacelift (Robust, Responsive)


Large Scramjets and CCEs

1980 ~ 2010

Hypersonic Missiles/ Small Launch Systems

Medium Scramjets


Hypersonic Missiles (Time-Critical Targets)

Small Scramjets


X-51 Program

Cleared for Public Release: #88ABW-2009-3878

National Hypersonic Flight Demo Landscape
Program X-43A Speed M 7,10 Significance Airframe-Integ First Flight Mar 04

HyFly DCR X-51A

M6 M 6+

Missile ATD H/C Fuel Cooled Engine

Oct 07 Dec 09



Reusable 2012+ Comb Cycle Engine

Cleared for Public Release: #88ABW-2009-3878

National Hypersonic Ground-Launch Flight Experiments
Program FASTT HyShot (AUS) HyCAUSE (AUS/DARPA) HIFiRE Flt2 (AF/DSTO) HyV M5 Vitiation effects Mar 11 M 6-8 Depressed Traj Nov 10 M 10 strm-trace IML Jun 07 Speed M6 M 8-10 Significance accel free-flt low cost R&D First Flight Mar 04 Oct01-Jun07

Cleared for Public Release: #88ABW-2009-3878

Scramjet Overview and Challenges
Endothermic Fuel Process:

~ 1000 BTU/lbm

• • • • • • • •

Liquid Hydrocarbon (endothermic JP7) Fuelled Advanced endotherm-no deposits Fixed Geometry, Self-Starting Inlet Variable internal contraction and BL bleed Nominal 10 lbm/sec airflow Times 10 for large weapon application (10X) Planar Cross-Section Shape transitions, axisymmetric, streamline-traced IML Accelerate over 2 Mach numbers Accelerate over 3+ Mach numbers Dual-Fuel Combustor Ignition System Rapid ignition on liquid fuel – Cold Start Un-Cooled Engine Leading Edges, Inlet Ramp, Nozzle Higher T materials and Cooled Internal Inlet, Isolator, Combustor with Thermal increased fuel endotherm Balance at Cruise
Distribution A: 88ABW-2009-2489, 5 June 2009

X-51A Program Objective
Flight test the USAF Hypersonic Technology (HyTech) scramjet engine, using endothermic hydrocarbon fuel, by accelerating a vehicle from boost (~M=4.5) to Mach 6+

• • •

Acquire ground and flight data on an actively cooled, self-controlled operating scramjet engine (rules and tools development) Demonstrate viability of an endothermically fueled scramjet in flight Prove viability of a free-flying, scramjet powered, vehicle (Thrust > Drag)
Cleared for Public Release: 88ABW-2008-0845

X-51A Propulsion Heritage
X-51A propulsion system has strong foundation in past component & freejet tests
Performance Test Engine (Jan ’01) •Copper heat sink construction •Partial width flowpath

HyTech Flowpath Development

X-51A Flight Test
Ground Demo Engine 1 (June ’03) •Flight weight •Fuel cooled, but open loop fuel system

X-51A FCE SJX61-2 (Oct 08) •Flight Clearance Engine •Flight fuel pump & instr. X-51A Dev. Engine, SJX61-1 (Jul ’07) Ground Demo Engine 2 (Mar ’06) •Full X-51A forebody and nozzle •Center engine for X-43C •Fuel cooled, closed loop fuel system •Fuel cooled, closed loop fuel system Cleared for Public Release: #88ABW-2009-3878

X-51A Subsystems Packaging
Engine Subsystems (Packaged Wet in JP-7) • Engine Fuel Pump
• Ethylene (Engine Start) • Nitrogen (Fuel Pressurization)

Subsystems Bay
• GCU/IMU/GPS • FADEC • Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI)

FTS, FTI and Control Systems
• Antennas • Sensors • Control Actuators

JP-7 Fuel
• Integral Tanks • 271 lb

• Engine Systems (Li-ion Pack) • Actuators • Avionics and FTI • Flight Termination System (Separate) Cleared for Public Release: #88ABW-2009-3878 • Fuel Pump

Fuel System


X-51A Propulsion Configuration

JP-7 Fuel Tank
Vehicle Nozzle

Integral forebody / inlet F119 FADEC

Flowpath & Heat Exchanger Fuel Pump

Cleared for Public Release: #88ABW-2009-3878

Fuel-Cooled Scramjet Overview
Closed Loop Fuel System & Cold Start

Body Exit Manifold Fuel Coolant Inlets
Cold coolant fuel into HEX

Hot coolant fuel out of HEX

Fuel Coolant Collection Manifold
Hot fuel into flowpath

Body Inlet Manifold Heat Exchanger Panel
eat hH oug thr low el f X) u HE nt f ola nger ( o a C h Exc

Fuel Dist. Valves

SJX61-1 Ground Test Engine Configuration
Cleared for Public Release: #88ABW-2009-3878

Four Vehicles in Assembly
(Boeing Palmdale Facility)


Cleared for Public Release: #88ABW-2009-3878

Ground Test Operations

X-51 to B-52 Carriage Integration X-51/B-52 on Aircraft System Integration Electromagnetic Compatibility / Safety of Flight Test (EMC/SOF)

Cleared for Public Release: #88ABW-2009-3878

Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation
• • • Joint program: U.S. AFRL and AUS DSTO … AFRL/RB Lead Up to 10 flights exploring fundamental hypersonic technologies AFRL/RZA prime for Flights 2 & 6 and Experiment Contributor in Flight 1
Flight 1 Flight 1: •Optically–based, engine air mass capture

HF2 Conceptual Payload Layout

Flight 2: •Ram-Scram mode transition •Scram performance •Scram stability (LBO) •Combustion progress

Pervasive Opportunities: • Experimental Approach – seconds of clean, high-speed flight • Core flow measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution
Distribution A: 88ABW-2009-2489, 5 June 2009

Nominal Trajectory / Test Window
Nominal Flight Path q=47.9 kPa (1000 psf) q=143.6 kPa (3000 psf)
(3000-psf) 143.6-kPa

Scramjet Performance Experiment

f) (1000-ps 47.9-kPa

Shroud Deployment

Inlet Start

-mode cramjet t de to S ual-mo on Experimen D i Transit econds • Flight Trajectory Objectives ~6s

• Constant Q0 trajectory of 86.2-kPa (1800-psf) • 2 sigma Q0 range of 47.9 – 143.6-kPa (1000 – 3000-psf) • Accelerating from Mach 5.5 – 8.5 • Test time ≥ 8 seconds in the test window • Maintain α ≤ ± 2° and β ≤ ± 2°

45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference Denver, Colorado August 2 - 5 2009

Approved for Public Release 88ABW-2009-4321, 9 Oct 2009

 

Goal: Develop first generation compact diode laser systems

Predecessor of system to measure combustion efficiency and thrust

System components
Two independent flight electronic systems each with one distributed feedback laser (DFB) scanned at 50,000 Hz  Four detector channels per DFB  Processed by custom-built electronics (Zolo Technologies, Inc.)

System specifications
2kg mass, 14W max power consumption  Processed data telemetered at up to 1 kHz  8 simultaneous line-of-sight measurements


Isolator / Combustor

45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference Denver, Colorado August 2 - 5 2009

Approved for Public Release 88ABW-2009-4321, 9 Oct 2009

Turbine-Based Combined Cycle (TBCC)
DARPA’s Falcon Combined-Cycle Engine Technology (FaCET)

Notional Mach 6 prompt global ISR/strike aircraft

Reproduced with DARPA permission from 4 Aug2009 AIAA JPC presentation of paper AIAA-2009-5537

FaCET freejet engine installed in AEDC APTU (Tullahoma, TN)

Short Duration Propulsion Test and Evaluation (Hy-V) Program
• • • SDPTE Program established and combined with Hy-V Program Goal is to resolve effects of duration and vitiation of ground test media on DMSJ performance Culminates with Mach 5 sounding rocket flight of two DMSJ flowpaths
Prediction of Flight Performance - Thrust - Combustor pressure - Isolator pressure - Inlet operability - Heat flux
UVa Direct-Connect Tests ATK Freejet Tests Flight at NASA WFF

Cleared for public release AEDC PA 2009-292

Robust Scramjet 10X Program
• • • • Narrowed scope to 10x (from 100x) Focus limited resources 1x to 10x is significant leap as a design challenge 10x is still compatible with national T&E infrastructure at least in directconnect mode AFRL/RZA-led exercise with industry to identify technology gaps Primary Technology Gaps •Ignition/Engine Start Sequence •Flameholding Scaling and Flow Coupling •Inlet Starting/Operability Limits •Seals, Gaps, and Tolerances •Shape Stable High Temperature Materials •Thermal Management •Fuel Modeling, Characterization , Stability Heavy Hypersonic Cruise Missile

• 10X Design Concept
– Operation over range of 3 Mach numbers within Mach 3.5 to 8.0 – Operating dynamic pressure range from at least 1000 to more than 2000 lbf/sq ft – On-design captured air mass flow rate of 100 lbm/s – Resultant off-design capture between 50 and 200 lbm/s

• Ops Concept
– Air-launch from B-52H – Rocket boost

Distribution A: 88ABW-2009-2489, 5 June 2009


AFRL Hypersonic Propulsion Technology Programs
X-51A Scramjet Engine Demonstration • Demo HyTech scramjet in flight • First flight FY09 Robust Scramjet • 10X – 100X scale • Increased durability • Improved operability

10 X SED 100 X SED


Combined Cycle Engine Components • Merge scramjet with turbine and rocket engines for wide range of flight speeds • Key to air breathing access to space
Cleared for Public Release: # DOD 06-S-2154


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