Olfactory Pathway

Sense of Smell

Smell is the least understood of our senses.
A. Stimulus ± Odorant or Odoriferous substances
Physical Factors that affect the degree of stimulation 1. only volatile substances that can be sniffed into the nostril can be smelled. 2. the stimulating substances must be slightly water soluble. 3. substances must be at least slightly lipid soluble.

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Olfactory apparatus consists of receptor cells, supporting cells and basal (stem) cells.
‡ Basal cells generate new receptor cells every 1-2 months. ‡ Supporting cells contain enzymes that oxidize hydrophobic

volatile odorants.
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Bipolar sensory neurons located within olfactory epithelium are pseudostratified.
‡ Axon projects directly up into olfactory bulb of cerebrum. x Olfactory bulb projects to olfactory cortex, hippocampus, and amygdaloid nuclei.
x Synapses with 2nd order neuron.

‡ Dendrite projects into nasal cavity where it terminates in cilia.
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Neuronal glomerulus receives input from 1 type of olfactory receptor.

Stimulation of the Olfactory Cells

Mechanism of Excitation of the Olfactory Cells
1. Activation of the receptor protein by the odorant substance activates the G-protein complex 2. This, in turn activates multiple molecules of adenylyl cyclase inside the olfactory cell membrane 3. This causes the formation of many times more of molecules of cAMP 4. cAMP opens still many times more sodium channels

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Fr tal l be f cerebrum lfact ry tract lfact ry bulb

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Mitral cell Gl meruli

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Bipolar sensory neurons located within olfactory epithelium
‡ Dendrite projects into nasal cavity, terminates in cilia ‡ Axon projects directly up into olfactory bulb of cerebrum ‡ Olfactory bulb projects to olfactory cortex, hippocampus, and

amygdaloid nuclei

Olfactory Epithelium and Olfactory Bulb

Olfactory epithelium Olfactory Bulb

Glomerulus Mitral cell Tufted cell periglomerular cell Olfactory tract

Olfactory Pathway

Modality: Olfaction Receptor: Olfactory Cell of Olfactory Epithelium Cranial Nerve: I (Olfactory Nerve)

1st Neuron: Olfactory Bulb --- Mitral & Tufted Cell
olfactory tract olfactory striae lateral & intermediate olfactory striae

Termination: Primary Olfactory Area (Rhinencephalon)
piriform lobe (prepiriform cortex, entorhinal cortex) corticomedial amygdala anterior perforated substance (olfactory tubercle)

Olfactory System - Olfactory Pathways

A. olfactory epithelium B. olfactory bulb C. nucleus of diagonal band of Broca D. periamygdaloid cortex E. cirticomedial amygdala F. entorhinal area G. septal nuclei I. olfactory nerve 1. olfactory tract 2. lateral olfactory stria 3. intermediate olfactory stria 4. medial olfactory stria

Olfactory Pathways
I. olfactory nerve 2. lateral olfactory striae 1. olfactory tract 3. intermediate olfactory striae A. olfactory epithelium B. olfdactory bulb C. anterior olfactory nucleus & olfactory tubercle D. periamygdaloid area E. corticomedial amygdala F. entorhinal area

I

Olfactory System - Connections of Primary Olfactory Cortex

A. olfactory epithelium B. olfactory bulb C. nucleus of diagonal band of Broca D. periamygdaloid cortex E. cirticomedial amygdala F. entorhinal area G. mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) I. olfactory nerve 1. olfactory tract 2. lateral olfactory stria 3. intermediate olfactory stria 4. thalamocortical radiation

Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials in Olfactory Cells Adaptation ± Large numbers of centrifugal nerve fibers pass from the olfactory regions of the brain backward along the olfactory tract and terminate on special inhibitory cell s in the olfactory bulb, the granule cells

Primary Sensations of Smell
1. Camphoraceous 2. Musky 3. Floral 4. Pepperminty 5. Ethereal 6. Pungent 7. Putrid

Olfactory Cells > Glomerulus > Mitral Cells > Olfactory Bulb > Olfactory Tract D. Center

Olfactory Area
1. Medial Olfactory Area ± Very Old Olfactory System *subserves the basic olfactory reflexes such as licking of the lips, salivation, and other feeding responses caused by smell of food 2. Lateral Olfactory Area ±
A.. Less Old Olfactory system provides automatic but partially learned control of food intake and aversion to toxic and unhealthy foods

B. Newer Pathway Used for conscious perception and analysis of olfaction

Adaptation (Centrifugal Control of Activity in the Olfactory Bulb by the Central Nervous System)

Abnormalities of Olfaction
1. Anosmia ± absence of the sense of smell 2. Hyposmia ± diminished olfactory sensitivity 3. Dysosmia ± distorted sense of smell

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Neuronal glomerulus receives input from 1 type of olfactory receptor Odorant molecules bind to receptors and act through G-proteins to increase cAMP.
‡ Open membrane channels, and cause generator potential; which stimulate the

production of APs. ‡ Up to 50 G-proteins may be associated with a single receptor protein. ‡ G-proteins activate many G- subunits - amplifies response.

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Odorant molecules bind to receptors and act through G-proteins to increase cAMP.
‡ Open membrane channels,

and cause generator potential; which stimulate the production of APs. ‡ Up to 50 G-proteins may be associated with a single receptor protein. ‡ Dissociation of these Gproteins releases may Gsubunits.
x Amplify response.

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Olfactory epithelium with olfactory receptors, supporting cells, basal cells Olfactory receptors are modified neurons Surfaces are coated with secretions from olfactory glands Olfactory reception involves detecting dissolved chemicals as they interact with odorant binding proteins

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