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KAJIAN AMERIKA LATIN

Institusi, Aktor dan Proses Politik

DEMOCRATIZATION

DEMOCRACY IN LATIN AMERICA


VISI

PERKEMBANGAN DEMOKRASI
DI AMERIKA LATIN
Diukur berdasarkan EDI 19602002

Right to Vote
Cleans Elections
Free Elections
Elected Public Offices

Maka..
Demokratisasi di
Amerika Latin
menunjukkan
perkembangan
signifikan sejak 1970an

TRANSISI DEMOKRASI DI AMERIKA LATIN

Dua bentuk transisi demokrasi di


Amerika Latin
Keruntuhan rezim otoriter (Nigeria 1979
dan Argentina 1982
Negosiasi antara pihak yang berlawanan
untuk menuju liberalisasi (Brazil, Peru dan
Chile)

Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Perubahan


Rezim

Faktor
Politik
Ellites

Economic
Crisis
Faktor
Ekonomi

Faktor Internasional
Ekspresi

Konsolidasi Dan Kualitas Demokrasi Di Amerika


Latin

Kriteria Standar Konsolidasi


Semua aktor politik percaya bahwa hanya
negara demokrasi satu-satunya cara yg sah
untuk settle competitions for political office and
formulated policy
Sistem baru secara bertahap memperoleh
legitimasi di mata masyarakat dan berkurangnya
pihak yg berkecenderungan anty-sistem seperti
militer
Respect for laws, rules and procedures

Bagaimana Konsolidasi Demokrasi di Amerika


Latin?

Kenyataan Politik

Unconsolidated

Korupsi
Kemacetan Politik
Ketidakstabilan
dan kekerasan
terus-menerus
(Colombia,
Argentina, Peru,
Bolivia)

Delegative
Democracy

CHALLENGES FACING DEMOCRACY


Political Challenges to Democratic
Consolidation
Presidentialism
Representation through parties
The Problem of Populism

PRESIDENTIALISM

Lack of clarity about presidential powers resulting in concentration of pow

REPRESENTATION THROUGH PARTIES


Disenchantment (kekecewaan) with parties
linked to corruption and economic
dissatisfaction
Growth of politics outside parties and
partisan dealignment
Lack of faith in the value of elections and
abstention (golput)
Populism, temptation of leaders to break
rules and leapfrog institutions

The Rule of Law and Judicial Reform

Endemic Corruption
Judicial Systems that are neither independent nor effective
Inequality within a legal process that favours the rich and powerful
Lack of due process leading to miscarriages of justice
Indifference (ketidakpedulian) by judicial and law enforcement agencies
to human rights abuses
Growth of vigilantism
Corruption and lawless behaviour by state agents enjoying impunity
Attitudes among citizens that exacerbate a lack of respect for life and
property
Establisment of quasi-legal systems outside the reach of the state

Civil Military Relations to Democraic


Consolidation

Tensions over how democratic governments


handle legacy of human rights abuses
Continuation of military prerogatives that
prevent civilian governments from exercising
full constitutional authority
De facto military autonomy in some areas
Military missions that draw the armed forces
into domestic functions

Economic Challenges
High levels of poverty and inequality
Failure of neoliberal reforms to have an
impact on poverty and inequality
Unemployment, underemployment and
increasing levels of financial insecurity
Frustration about limited progress in
improving living standards under democracy

TUGAS
Bagi Kelas menjadi 5 Kelompok
Baca dan pahami masing2 Aktor Politik berdasarkan
bahan bacaan
Mekanisme:
Tunjuk 1 Menteri
Menteri membagi tugas untuk seluruh staf
Staf melaporkan hasil bacaan kepada Menteri
Menteri mencatat dan mengevaluasi hasil pekerjaan
para staf
Menteri mempresentasikan pemahamannya pada
Presiden pada rapat kabinet terbuka