Dean¶s Cabinet April, 2008

Integrated, EnergyEnergy-Efficient Design

Dean¶s Cabinet April 17, 2008 Center for Energy Efficient Design

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Integrated Building Systems Energy Efficiency in Transportation Energy Storage Energy Harvesting and Micropower (off-grid) Generation Data Center Cooling Smart Grid

Interdisciplinary.Unifying theme: Dynamics. Control. Computation.
Bamieh, Chong, Bullo, El Abbadi, Gibou, Hespanha, Khammash, Homsy, Yuen, Matthys, Mezic, Moehlis, Pennathur, Wolsky, Yang, Madhow

What are we trying to do? Why does it matter?
Energy Breakdown by Sector

What are we trying to do? Why does it matter?
Energy Breakdown by Sector

Sensor Work: Prof. Francesco Bullo, Prof. MadhowUpamanyu

What are we trying to do? Why does it matter?
Energy Breakdown by Sector

Can we do 70%

better in NEW buildings? 90% better? 50% better in RETROFITS?

Sensor Work: Prof. Francesco Bullo, Prof. MadhowUpamanyu

How is it done today, and what are the limitations of current practice?
‡ Properly applied offtheshelf or state-of-the-shelf technologies are available to achieve low-energy buildings. However, these strategies must be applied together and properly integrated in the design, installation, and operation to realize energy savings. There is no single efficiency measure or checklist of measures to achieve low-energy buildings. -NEED FOR INTEGRATION OF BEST-In-CLAS COMPONENTS ‡ -There was often a lack of control software or appropriate control logic to allow the technologies to work well together. -Design teams were too optimistic about the behavior of the occupants and their acceptance of systems. -Energy savings from daylighting were substantial, but were generally less than expected. -Plug loads were often greater than design predictions. -Effective insulation values are often inflated when comparing the actual building to the asdesigned building. -PV systems experienced a range of operational performance degradations. Common degradation sources included snow, inverter faults, shading, and parasitic standby losses. -NEED INTEGRATED CONTROL SOFTWARE AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS ‡Each of these buildings saved energy, with energy use 25% to 70% lower than code. Although each building is a good energy performer, additional energy efficiency and on-site generation is required for these buildings to reach DOE s ZEB goal. -NEED FOR FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT DESIGN BLUEPRINTS

Faculty in CCDC

How is it done today, and what are the limitations of current practice?
‡ Properly applied offtheshelf or state-of-the-shelf technologies are available to achieve low-energy buildings. However, these strategies must be applied together and properly integrated in the design, installation, and operation to realize energy savings. There is no single efficiency measure or checklist of measures to achieve low-energy buildings. -NEED FOR INTEGRATION OF BEST-In-CLAS COMPONENTS ‡ -There was often a lack of control software or appropriate control logic to allow the technologies to work well together. -Design teams were too optimistic about the behavior of the occupants and their acceptance of systems. -Energy savings from daylighting were substantial, but were generally less than expected. -Plug loads were often greater than design predictions. -Effective insulation values are often inflated when comparing the actual building to the asdesigned building. -PV systems experienced a range of operational performance degradations. Common degradation sources included snow, inverter faults, shading, and parasitic standby losses. -NEED INTEGRATED CONTROL SOFTWARE AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS ‡Each of these buildings saved energy, with energy use 25% to 70% lower than code. Although each building is a good energy performer, additional energy efficiency and on-site generation is required for these buildings to reach DOE s ZEB goal. -NEED FOR FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT DESIGN BLUEPRINTS

What does the LOOK LIKE?

DNA of a Zero Energy Building

Faculty in CCDC

What is new in our approach / technology, and why do we think it will be successful? Current efforts give you a dashboard. We can provide
Lucid Design Group Building Dashboard Agilewaves Building Dashboard

Energy Efficiency Cruise Control.

Best Components, Best Integration Tools!

Power grid: a complex system system.

Dean¶s Cabinet April 17, 2008

Uncertainty Management Tool 3: DSample Deterministic Test Vectors for Accurate Sampling

Sharp increase in accuracy with new Sampling tool (red) vs standard method (blue)

-Automatically produces test vectors for uncertainty analysis, beating the curse of dimensionality.

Example of use:to reduce cost of physical testing, perform model-based testing of a subsystem
whose description contains 100 to 1000s of states and physical parameters that are not known exactly, but only within a range, such as outside temperature.

-The tool (DSample) produces a set of deterministic test vectors for such simulation. DSAMPLE precision does not depend on the number of dimensions and it beats the speed of the competing algorithms by orders of magnitude.

DARPA Robust Uncertainty Management

DyNARUM Program
‡ ‡ ‡ Develop analysis and design tools for Uncertainty Management in large Dynamical Systems Demonstrate complexity management tools in problems with 10,000+ states/parameters. Close collaboration with industrial partner (United Technologies Corporation)

Dean¶s Cabinet April 17, 2008

Uncertainty Management Tool 1: VERTool Simplification Using Graphical Decompositions

Layered system decomposition

-Automatically finds chains of influences in complex systems with 1000¶s of variables Example of use:vendor change requests a small change in communication protocol
linking two components. What are the possible negative consequences for system performance? Which other components will be affected?

-The tool (VERTool) produces a layered decomposition, that enables efficient system analysis.

Dean¶s Cabinet April 17, 2008

Uncertainty Management Tool 2: COORTool Simplification Using Global Modes

G

time

Global (emergent) mode oscillation

-Automatically finds global description variables in complex systems with 1000¶s of variables Example of use:Design of an system leads to unwanted oscillations that represent themselves
on the scale of the system (i.e. state of every component oscillates in time), with no apparent cause from a single component. Which changes are necessary to remove oscillatory behavior?

-The tool (COORTool) produces a description of the system in global variables that reveal cause and effect relationships at system scale.

A Power Grid Model
Classical

Alternative

DOE seed project (with LBL,UTC)

Energy Efficiency in a UC Merced building

The Classroom and Office Building at UC Merced

‡92000sq ft. Leed gold building

A small number of parameters affect energy output!

Dean¶s Cabinet April 17, 2008 Local interactions

‡Associate Vice Chancellor for Campus Design and Facilities, Marc Fisher ‡Division of Student Affairs (Bill McTague) McTague) ‡Facilities Management (David McHale)
‡Total energy expenditure on campus ~$8 mil/year ‡Total student affairs energy expenditure ~$1 mil/year ‡Strong interest within DSA in energy efficiency; goals: 1. Zero Net Energy (ZNE) for all SA buildings Zero Net Energy means energy efficiency improvements combined with on site energy generation to cover the energy requirements of the building on an annual basis. 2. LEED-EBOM Platinum
(Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ± Existing Building Operations and Maintenance)

rating for all Student Affairs buildings.

Dean¶s Cabinet April 17, 2008 Student Resources Building

Dean¶s Cabinet April 17, 2008

Dean¶s Center RecreationCabinet April 17, 2008

‡50% of all Divisions of Student Affairs energy costs ‡Relatively simple use of our modeling and optimization tools can improve energy efficiency substantially (e.g. just swimming pool thermal cover scheduling optimization can lead to up to 30% savings)

Dean¶s Cabinet April 17, 2008 Local interactions

‡Southern California Edison support for study of integrated system design: cost-benefit, engineering/economics/sustainability study

National laboratories

Student Affairs

Commercial partners

Facilities
Funding agencies

International partnerships

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