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PAPER

Manufacture of
Paper

Prepared by: Jayson V. Milarpes

Trivia

The pulp and paper industry is one of the most important


industries in the world. It supplies an essential product - paper
- to over 5 billion people worldwide.
Paper is produced in over 50% of the world's countries.

History and Etymology


The word "paper" is etymologically derived from Latin papyrus, which comes
from the Greek (papuros), the word for the Cyperus papyrus plant.
Papyrus paper is the first paper in history. Found in the tombs and temples of
Ancient Egyptians as far back as 2700 B.C. It was made by Ancient Egyptians from
papyrus plant. The amazing part about papyrus paper is that it's very strong, durable,
elastic and is made naturally.
New evidence shows that the Chinese used old chopped-up fishing nets to
make the world's very first paper. Three hundred years later, around 100 A.D., a
Chinese scholar and government official named Ts'ai Lun made paper out of tree
bark and scraps of linen and hemp. Even though archaeological evidence shows
that paper may have been made even a little earlier, Ts'ai Lun was the first to have
his efforts recorded. Like many inventors through the centuries, he built upon the
work of others. Because he documented his invention, Ts'ai Lun is generally known
as the man who "invented" paper. The art of papermaking was kept a secret in China
for centuries. It was not until 793 A.D. that paper was made outside the Orient. The
process slowly spread through Africa and Europe in the 10th century, and finally
reached England around 1494, two years after Columbus sailed to America.

History and Etymology


Finally, in 1690, the first U.S. paper mill was built at Germantown, Pennsylvania
by William Rittenhouse. The Rittenhouse mill made about 100 pounds of paper a
day. At this time, paper was made by hand from old cotton and linen rags, a slow and
labor-intensive process. As the demand for paper grew, it became harder and harder
to find enough old rags to meet the demand. It wasn't until the late 1860s that
Americans first began making paper from wood.

What is Paper?

a thin material produced or made from cellulosic fibers and other plant
materials.

a versatile material with many uses. Whilst the most common is for writing and
printing upon, it is also widely used as a packaging material, in many cleaning
products, in a number of industrial and construction processes, and even as a
food ingredient particularly in Asian cultures.

Most paper is made from wood fibers, but rags, flax, cotton linters, and bagasse
(sugar cane residues) are also used in some papers.

Main Ingredient For Paper

Cellulose
- the fibers of primary interest in
papermaking, comprises about 50
percent of wood by oven-dry weight

Lignin
- main component of wood that needs
to be removed to turn it into paper.
- it is also the compound that makes
wood pulp brown, so it is removed
from all wood pulp except if used to
make brown paper and some
cardboards

Papermaking Process

Papermaking Process

De-Barking

- Bark is stripped from the logs by knife,

drum, abrasion, or hydraulic barker.


The stripped bark is then used for fuel or as soil enrichment.

Papermaking Process

Chipping Machine
- Stripped logs are chipped into small pieces by knives mounted in massive
steel wheels.
- The chips pass through vibrating screens, whereby undersized chips, dust etc
and oversized chips are rejected.

Papermaking Process

Chemical Pulping Process


- Chips from the storage bins are fed into a digester to which chemicals have
been added and then cooked to remove the lignin and hemicelluloses, thus
separating and cleaning the fibers.

Kraft Pulping
- Involves the digestion of wood chips at elevated temperature and pressure in
"white liquor", which is a water solution of sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide.
The white liquor chemically dissolves the lignin that binds the cellulose fibers
together for between 1 and 3 hours. Digestion may be either a continuous process
or treated in batch. Most of the lignin and some of the hemicelluloses are
dissolved, leaving the remaining cellulose fibers separated.

Papermaking Process

Mechanical Pulping Process


- Yields over 90% of the wood as fiber is produced by forcing debarked logs,
about two meters long, and hot water between enormous rotating steel discs
with teeth that literally tear the wood apart. Alternatively, logs can be pressed
against grindstones which is why this process is also known as ground wood
pulp.
- Wood fibres are separated from each other by mechanical energy applied to the
wood matrix causing the bonds between the fibres to break gradually and fibre
bundles, single fibres and fibre fragments to be released. It is the mixture of fibres
and fibre fragments that gives mechanical pulp its favourable printing properties. In
the mechanical pulping the objective is to maintain the main part of the lignin in
order to achieve high yield with acceptable strength properties and brightness.
Mechanical pulps have a low resistance to ageing which results in a tendency to
discolor.

Papermaking Process
Pulping
Process

Raw
materials

Yield on
wood

Typical enduses

SGW (StoneGroundwood
Pulping)

Spruce and fir


(softwood)

95-97 %

Printing & writing


papers and
newsprint

TMP (ThermoMechanical
Pulping)

Spruce and fir


(softwood)

93-95 %

Printing & writing


papers and
newsprint

CTMP (ChemiThermoMechanical
Pulping)

Dominantly
spruce, but also
aspen and beech,
NaOH, SO2 and
H 2 O2

90-94 %

Printing & writing


papers, tissue and
packaging boards

Most mechanical pulping is integrated with paper manufacture. Mechanical pulp is typically
included in a paper furnish to increase the opacity of the paper product.

Papermaking Process

Hydrapulper
- When the bales of wood pulp or waste paper arrive at the paper mill they are
loaded onto a conveyor and passed into a circular tank containing water. This
has a very powerful agitator at the bottom which breaks up the bales into small
pieces. The pulp mass created begins to look like thick porridge.
- It operates automatically and when the disintegrating process is complete it
discharges the pulp into large storage tanks.
- Hydrapulpers used mainly for handling waste paper are fitted with special
devices for removing unwanted contraries such as wire, plastic, paper clips,
staples etc.

Papermaking Process

Chest Blend
- The stock passes to a blend chest where numerous chemicals can be added
to obtain the required characteristics to the finished paper. Dyes are also
added, as necessary, to color the paper. Dyes fix themselves to the cellulose
fibers and are fast to light and water
- Each grade of paper and board requires a very accurate blend of pulps and
additives and the properties of the paper are continually monitored by
computers during manufacture.

Papermaking Process
De-inking

1.

Washing

2.

Flotation

Papermaking Process

Refining
- This is where the cellulose fibers pass through a refining process which is vital
in the art of papermaking. Before refining, the fibers are stiff, inflexible and form
few bonds. The stock is pumped through a conicle machine which consists of a
series of revolving discs. The violent abrasive and bruising action has the effect
of cutting, opening up and declustering the fibers and making the ends divide.
This is called fibrillation. In this state, the fibers are pliable and have greater
surface area, which significantly improves the fiber bonding. The properties of
the paper are directly related to the refining process. Refining used to be called
beating.

Papermaking Process
Screening and Cleaning
- Pulps contain undesirable fibrous and non-fibrous materials, which should be
removed before the pulp is made into paper or board.
- Cleaning involves removing small particles of dirt and grit using rotating
screens and centrifugal cleaners.

Papermaking Machine

Papermaking Process
The Wet End
- This is where the diluted stock first comes into contact with the paper machine.
a.

Flow Box/Head Box - collecting box for the dilute paper stock that will be
poured onto the papermachine.

b.

Wire Section - the water drains away through the mesh leaving tiny fibres as
a mat on top of the mesh. When the thin mat of fibres reaches the end of the
wire, although it is still very moist and weak, it has become a sheet of paper.

c.

Press Section - More moisture is squeezed out of the paper like a mangle,
and drawn away by suction. At this stage of the process the paper is still very
moist.

Papermaking Process
The Dry End
- The continuation of the wet end section and the drying part of the papermachine..
a.

Drying Section - Synthetic dryer fabrics carry the web of paper round the
cylinders until the paper is completely dry.

b.

Size Press - Two rolls are nipped together with the sheet in between and
water mixed with sizing agents (i.e. resins, glue, or starch) is impregnated into
the sheet to change its characteristics or improve ability to receive print.

c.

Calender - consolidates and polishes or glazes the surface of the paper.

d.

Winding - reeling up into large reels or small depending on the request of the
customer.

Papermaking Process
Conversion and Printing
- Once the paper is made, a great deal of it is converted into a product. Converters
specialize in transforming reels and sheets of paper and board into a vast array of
finished products for distribution such as boxes, cartons and stationery. Converters
sell their products to the public or to other manufacturers.
- Not all paper and board is processed by converters. Some papermakers do their
own converting, for example, the manufacturers of soft tissues market their own
products and sell directly to the public.

Local Manufacturers

Established only in the year 2000, Bataan 2020 took over the Samal, Bataan paper mill
complex of the former Bataan Pulp and Paper Mills Inc. (BPPMI) which was established in
1956 as one of the pioneers in the Philippine paper manufacturing industry.
In 2003, Bataan 2020 successfully revived the operations in the 2.3 - hectare paper mill
of an affiliate in Baesa Paper Resources, Inc. (formerly Mayleen Paper, Inc) located in Quirino
Highway, Baesa, Quezon City. Its versatile paper machine in Baesa produces corrugating
medium and uncoated wood-free paper, and is able to conveniently supply the needs of its
Metro Manila based customers with significantly reduces transportation costs.
In 2005, to address the pollution caused by the use of bunker fuel in generating the
steam necessary to dry its paper produce, Bataan 2020 boldly invested in three (3) independent
steam generating facilities fueled by nothing more than biomass in the form of rice hull, a readily
available waste product of threshed rice abundantly found in the farmlands in Central Luzon.

Local Manufacturers
In February 2006, Bataan 2020 began recycling sludge and ash waste residues from its
production lines to form sodium silicate and related chemical products in commercial
quantities.
Finally, Bataan 2020 continues to actively purchase and recycle used and discarded
paper, cartons, and other recyclable paper-based products classified under the following: ONP
- Old News Paper; LWL - Local White Lender or Office Files; OCC - Old Corrugated Cartons
commonly known as Kraft Boards; and MW - Mixed Waste.

- Bataan 2020, Inc. is a leading manufacturer of fine quality paper, board and tissue
in the Philippines. Currently, the company has three paper machine located two sites,
one in Samal, Bataan and the other in Baesa, Quezon City, with a combined capacity
of about 90,000 metric tons per annum.
- Bataan 2020, Inc. is an ISO 9001:2008 accredited company. Its products include
newsprint, uncoated wood-free paper, recycled paper, test liner, corrugating medium,
tissue, a variety of organic mushroom products and bio-organic fertilizer. It caters to
newspaper & textbook publishers, plain and pre-printed tabulating stock forms
manufacturers, paper converters, corrugators and tissue converters. With its
continuing efforts to be globally competitive, Bataan 2020 aims to eventually export
its products.

Local Manufacturer
Bataan 2020 consist of three (3) paper machines:
PM1 - which is primarily producing newsprint and recycled bond whose quality
is widely accepted.
PM2 - which produces tissue grade.
PM3 - which produces uncoated wood-free paper and corrugating medium.
.

Local Manufacturer
Flow-chart of PM1

Local Manufacturer
Flow-chart of PM2

Local Manufacturer
Flow-chart of PM3

Local Manufacturers
Customers of Bataan 2020

Local Manufacturers
Products

Other Local Manufacturer of Paper

About
They are manufacturers of high quality recycled printing and writing papers. Mill
efficiency and product quality are two most important bench marks which they strive to
constantly improve.
They also manufacture various kinds of paper products for school and office use.
They import various types of paper and board for wholesaling in our home market.

Products/services
Uncoated Wood-free Book Paper, Bond paper, Copy Paper, Notebook Paper, Packaging
Board, and Paper Products

Location: Calamba, Laguna, Philippines