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SECTION: 1.1-1.

Biological molecules

Introduction to biological
Bonding and formation of molecules:
1) Covalent bonding
2) Ionic bonding
3) Hydrogen bonding
) Polymerisation and formation of macromolecules:
1) Monomers into polymers via polymerisation.
2) E.g. basic subunit for polysaccharide is a monosaccharide glucose
) Condensation and hydrolysis:
1) Formation of polymers release a molecule of water called condensation reaction
2) Polymers can be broken through addition of water hydrolysis


Feature of carbon can readily form bonds with other carbon bonds allows
a sequence of carbon atoms of various lengths to be built up
Making of large molecules:
1) Monomer: each individual molecule e.g. monosaccharides, amino acids, and nucleotides.
2) These monomers join together to form polymers.
3) For example: CARBOHYDRATES which is a monomer = sugar (saccharide), a single
monomer is therefore called a monosaccharide, a pair of monosaccharide can join to
form disaccharide, and large numbers of disaccharides can form polysaccharides.
) Monosaccharide: general formula = (CH 2O)n
So glucose (6 carbons) has the formula: C 6H12O6 . The carbons, hydrogens and oxygen can
be arranged differently therefore glucose has 2 isomers:

Test for reducing sugars :

Benedicts test
All monosaccharides and most disaccharides (maltose) are reducing sugars. So they
can donate electrons to another chemical e.g. Benedicts reagent
Benedicts reagent is an alkaline solution of copper (II) sulfate. When a reducing
sugar is heated with Benedicts reagent it forms an insoluble red precipitate of
copper (I) oxide.

Add 2cm2 of the food sample in a test tube should be in liquid form

Add an equal volume of Benedicts reagent

Heat the mixture gently in a water bath for five minutes.

Monosaccharides join to form disaccharides:
glucose + glucose = maltose

Condensation reaction

glucose + fructose = sucrose glycosidic bond

glucose + galactose = lactoseformed

Test for non reducing



Test for starch:

Place 2 cm2 of sample into test
Add a few drops of iodine
solution and shake
If starch is present then a blue
black colour

Polysaccharides (3) : starch

Cells get their energy form
glucose, but plants store
excess glucose as starch. If
the plant needs more
glucose, it will break the
starch down into glucose.
Starch is a mixture of two
polysaccharides of alpha
glucose :amylose and
Starch is insoluble in water
and doesn't affect water
potential so it doesnt
cause water to enter cells by
osmosis good for storage

Found in animals and bacteria but never in
Animals store excess glucose as glycogenanother type of polysaccharide of alpha
The structure is similar to amylopectin, except
it has lots more branches.
This means that stored glucose can be
released quickly, which is important for energy
release in animals, which have a high
metabolic rate
Its also very compact, so its good for storage.
Also insoluble to doesnt diffuse out of cells
and does not draw water in.

Made from long, unbranched chains of beta glucose.
when they bond, they form straight cellulose chains.
These are linked by hydrogen bonds to form strong fibres called
The strong fibres mean cellulose provides structural support for cells
e.g. plant cell walls
Every adjacent
glucose molecule is
rotated by 180.
This straight chains
gives it stability.

These weakened
hydrogen bonds form
cross bridges.