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Linear Graphs?

Cartesian Graphs?

Golden Ratio
Calculator Precision?

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Created by Maths Rep of 104
Published in April 2010
Issue no. 2
Maths is Great PTE LTD
Golden Ratio-----------------------pg3
Cartesian Graphs-----------------pg4
Coordinates & Linear Graphs--pg5
Estimation & Approximation----pg6
Calculator Precision--------------pg7
Test your Calculator--------------pg8
Hall Of Fame: Al-Khwarizimi-pg10
Mathematics Quiz---------------pg11
Smaller quantity

Larger quantity

 In mathematics and the arts, 2 quantities are

in the golden ratio if the ratio of (the sum of
the quantities: the larger quantity) is = to the
ratio of (the larger quantity: the smaller one).
 The golden ratio is an irrational mathematical
constant, approximately 1.6180339887.
 Other names frequently used for the golden
ratio are the golden section (Latin: sectio
aurea) and golden mean. Other terms
encountered include extreme and mean ratio,
medial section, divine proportion, divine
section (Latin: sectio divina), golden
proportion, golden cut, golden number, and
mean of Phidias. The golden ratio is often
denoted by the Greek letter phi, usually lower
case (φ).
 In the previous issue, we mention Rene Descartes. He was
the on who invented the Cartesian Coordinate Graphs.
Once, there was a fly on the ceiling, he wanted to describe
the position of the fly. So, that is why he had invented the
Cartesian Coordinate Graphs.
 Cartesian Coordinate Graphs is useful for locating
something .This graph is the combination of number lines,
algebra and geometry.
 There are two types of axis: the x axis & the y axis.
 The x axis goes horizontally but the y axis goes vertically.
 However, there is also a z axis. (not commonly used)
 The place where the x axis & the y axis intersect, it’s the
origin, (O)
There are four quadrilaterals in a linear
The 1st quadrilateral has (+) x coordinates
&(+) y coordinates.
The 2nd quadrilateral has (-) x coordinates
&(+) y coordinates.
The 3rd quadrilateral has (-) x coordinates
&(-) y coordinates.
The 4th quadrilateral has (+) X
coordinates&(-) Y coordinates.
 Coordinate is a point.
 By joining two coordinates together, you will get a line.
 The line on the graph has a function (an algebra statement).
 A function is a relationship that expresses a dependant
variable in terms of an independent variable and each value
of the independent variable will produce a unique value for
the dependant variable.E.g. y=2x+3

 The steepness of the line formed is a gradient.

 Gradient of a line can be derived by the formula: rise/run
 A negative gradient is a gradient sloping downwards from
left to right.
 A positive gradient is a gradient sloping upwards from left
to right.
 A horizontal line has a gradient 0
 A vertical line has a gradient, which is undefined.
 We apply estimation in our daily lives and in
 We can round off very big or very small numbers by
rounding off to significant numbers or decimal place or
the nearest integer. This makes things easier for us.
 We approximate a measurement since there is no exact
or precise measurement.
 We estimate a value as is easier to calculate.

 In our daily life, we usually approximate a value to a

certain number of significant figures as it is easier for us
to say it. For example, it is easier to read out the
approximate value of the price of a housing estate than
to read out the exact price.
 In measurements, like for example measuring the
amount of water in the beaker. From the reading below
the meniscus, we might say the water level is about
6.5ml. If we wanted to read out the exact value, then we
will expect to see lots of numbers.
Calculator Precision
 Now, we’ll look into the precision of calculators. Hmmmm… one
might rely on calculator to do numeric computation, but calculators
are also very limited, they don’t show exact and precise value.
 The degree of precision of a calculator depends on the type of
calculator you are using. There are 2 different types: four-function
calculator and the scientific calculator.
 With the extensive use of calculators, we might notice that different
types of calculators give different type of answers. Instead, they
round off the value as calculator can also display at most ten digits
on the screen.
 The number of digits stored and used also depends on the capacity
of calculator Any number has exited the limit of the number of
digits, the calculator will round off the value. These approximations
result in rounding and truncation errors especially in working very
large or very small values.

 2/3 can be written in 0.666666666(truncation error) or

0.666666667(rounding error).
 If you multiply 2/3 by 4, your mental sum gives you 8/3. However,
the calculator will either give you 2.666666667 or 2.666666664.
 In conclusion, don’t rely too much on calculators. Instead, trust your
mental sum. Surprisingly, your mental sum may be more precise and
Get a calculator. Let’s test its precision.

Calculator’s screen value

Divide 100 by 3:
Then, multiply the
answer by 3:

Square root 2 three times:

Then square the answer
three times:

Cube root 5 six times:

Then cube the answer six

Try this exercise with another type of calculator.

Different types of calculator gives you different
types of answer due to truncation errors and
rounding errors
 Algebra is a branch of Mathematics, which used
letters and symbols to represent numbers or
 Algebra can be applied in almost any branch of
Mathematics. Once you mastered it, no problem
is too hard for you!
 Algebra is invented by a Muslim Mathematician,

 When solving an algebraic expression, follow the

BIDMAS rule.
 We add or subtract the like terms by adding or
subtracting the coefficients. We do not add or
subtract the coefficients of unlike terms.
 If an expression within brackets is multiplied by
a number, each term within the brackets must
be multiplied by that number when the brackets
are removed.
 Factorizing of algebraic expressions can be done
by extracting common factors from all terms of
the expression or grouping terms such that the
new terms obtained have a common factor.
Hall Of Fame: Al-Khwarizimi
 Al-Khwarizimi (c.780-c.850 CE) was a Persian
mathematician, astronomer and geographer.

 He is known as the founder of algebra.He thought of

representing unknown values using alphabet.

 Al-Khwarizmi was born at Khwarizm (Kheva), a town

south of the river Oxus in present day Uzbekistan.

 He explained the use of ZERO. He developed the decimal

system, several arithmetical procedures including
operations on fractions, details of Trigonometric tables
containing Sine functions and tangent functions, calculus
of two errors, which led him to the concept of

 He also contributed to astronomy and geography.

 Algebra and algorithms are enabling the building of

computers, and the creation of encryption.
 The modern technology industry would not exist without
the contributions of Muslim mathematicians like Al-
The top scorer of the quiz on the previous issue
is() with the score of ().

Mathematics Quiz
 There are 4 Quiz to solve.

 Q1. Simplify the following equations:

 (a) y=3x+5-4z-1x+5z
 (b) z=3a2 x 5a2 x 4a3

 Q2. Given that a line passes through the

coordinates (3,5) and (-2,10). What is the gradient
of the line?

 Q3. Given that a line passes through the

coordinates (-8,-6) and (0,36). What is the gradient
of the line?

 Q4. Solve the problems and estimate the answers

to the acceptable form.
 (a) 2.3456N+2345.6N
 (b) 6.5432m/s x 6.543.2m/s x 36kg

Write your answers on a foolscap paper and submit it to

Tommy. The highest score for the Mathematics Quiz will be
displayed on the next issue of the magazine. The deadline of
the quiz is 30th of April 2010.(Prizes will also be awarded by
the welfare department.)