SQL COMMANDS

DDL : Data Definition Language

DML : Data Manipulation Language

DDL
Data Definition Language (DDL) statements are used to define the database structure or schema. Some examples: CREATE - to create objects in the database ALTER - alters the structure of the database DROP - delete objects from the database TRUNCATE - remove all records from a table, including all spaces allocated for the records are removed. RENAME - rename an object

CREATE
Sample Create table student (id number,name varchar2(10), age number)

ALTER
ADDING NEW COLUMN ALTER TABLE emp ADD age NUMBER; ALTER TABLE emp ADD (age NUMBER,gender varchar2(10)); MODIFYING COLUMN ALTER TABLE emp MODIFY hiredate varchar2(15); ALTER TABLE emp MODIFY (empno varchar2(4),sal number(6)); DROP COLUMN ALTER TABLE emp DROP hiredate ; RENAME COLUMN ALTER TABLE emp RENAME COLUMN hiredate TO startdate;

RENAME
ALTER TABLE EMP RENAME TO EMPLOYEES; This will rename the EMP table to EMPLOYEES.

TRUNCATE
Truncate deletes all rows in a table. ALTER TABLE EMP RENAME TO EMPLOYEES; This will rename the EMP table to EMPLOYEES.

Difference between DELETE and TRUNCATE SQL> DELETE FROM EMP; SQL> ROLLBACK ; SQL> TRUNCATE TABLE EMP; SQL> ROLLBACK ; ALL ROWS HAVE BEEN DELETED DELETED ROWS HAVE BEEN RESTORED ALL ROWS HAVE BEEN DELETED DELETED ROWS CAN NOT BE RESTORED.

TRUNCATE DELETES ROWS, YOU CAN NOT RESTORE THE DELETED ROWS

DML
Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements are used for managing data within schema objects. Some examples: SELECT - retrieve data from the a database INSERT - insert data into a table UPDATE - updates existing data within a table DELETE - deletes all records from a table, the space for the records remain

TASKS ( You will create your tables ) Practice Exercise #1: Based on the departments table below, rename the departments table to depts. CREATE TABLE departments ( department_id Number(10), department_name varchar2(50) ); Practice Exercise #2: Based on the employees table below, add a column called salary that is a number(6) datatype. CREATE TABLE employees ( employee_number Number(10), employee_name Varchar2(50), department_id number(10) ); Practice Exercise #3: Based on the customers table below, add two columns - one column called contact_name that is a varchar2(50) datatype and one column called last_contacted that is a date datatype. CREATE TABLE customers ( customer_id Number(10), customer_name Varchar2(50), address varchar2(50), city varchar2(50), state varchar2(25), zip_code varchar2(10) );

Practice Exercise #4: Based on the employees table below, change the employee_name column to a varchar2(75) datatype. CREATE TABLE employees ( employee_number Number(10), employee_name Varchar2(50), department_id number(10) ); Practice Exercise #5: Based on the customers table below, change the state column to a varchar2(2) datatype. CREATE TABLE customers ( customer_id Number(10), customer_name varchar2(50), address varchar2(50), city varchar2(50), state varchar2(25), zip_code varchar2(10) ); Practice Exercise #6: Based on the employees table below, drop the salary column. CREATE TABLE employees ( employee_number Number(10), employee_name Varchar2(50), department_id number(10), salary number(6)); Practice Exercise #7: Based on the departments table below, rename the department_name column to dept_name. CREATE TABLE departments ( department_id Number(10), department_name Varchar2(50));

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