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CONSTRUCTION SAFETY

FRUMENCIO T. TAN
Accredited Safety Consultant

Learning Objectives:
At the end of this seminar-workshop, the participant will be able:

To

obtain background information on the general framework of


Construction Project Safety Management;

To demonstrate adequate knowledge on the concept of accident


prevention in construction sites;

Learning Objectives:

To understand the importance of construction safety - both the


economic and human point of view;

To understand Department Order No. 13 and other government


regulations pertaining to construction safety;

To plan, implement and monitor safety and health programs for


construction projects;

Learning Objectives:
To

know the pertinent functions of a construction safety officer,


including routine construction site safety health inspection,
accident investigation and reporting; and

To formulate corrective actions and measures to minimize if not


eliminate safety and health hazards within construction sites.

IMPORTANCE OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND


HEALTH (OSH) IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

Global OSH Situationer


ILO Report (28 April 2003)
270 Million Accidents Reported
355,000 of which are fatal
160 Million work-related illnesses reported
2,000,000 workers DIE every year
More than 100,000 work fatalities occur every month
More than 5,000 everyday
4 every minute.

PHILIPPINE OSH SITUATIONER

PHILIPPINE OSH SITUATIONER


280 establishments with 5,298 cases (CY 1998)
Others
Construction
Work-related
accidents

Manufacturing
Agriculture
0

1000

2000

3000

Work Accident/Injuries Survey


(BWC), 1998
Agriculture
: 2,049 cases
Manufacturing: 1,659
Construction : 1,123 (3rd highest in # of
cases)
The 1,123 work-related injuries in construction
sites monitored & analyzed came from only 43
establishments involving 32,403 workers

Work Accident/Injuries Survey(BWC):


Construction Industry, 1998
Disabling injuries

= 494 cases (44%)

temporary total disabilities


permanent partial disabilities
deaths / fatalities

Non-disabling injuries = 629 cases (56%)


medical treatment
first-aid cases

ACCIDENT VICTIMS (1998)


All industries
200
200
180
180
160
160
140
140
120
120
100
100
80
80
60
60
40
40
20
20
00

180
180

191
191

176
176
122
122

117
117
Cases
Cases

21-25
21-25

26-30
26-30

31-35
31-35

36-40
36-40

41-45
41-45

BWC Survey, 1998


Common Accident Types
Struck by

549

Striking against

134

Falls

79

BWC Survey, 1998


Nature of Injury
Open wounds
594
Abrasions
99
Fractures
26
Burn/scald
23
Foreign body in the eye - 22

BWC Survey, 1998


Common Unsafe Acts
Failing to use safe attire or PPE

433

Unsafe loading, placing, mixing,


lifting, etc.

110

BWC Survey, 1998


Common Contributing Factors
Lack of supervision & trainingImproper attitude
Condition of work area
Lack of knowledge
Bodily defects
-

381
239
216
123
109

Work-Alert Cases:
In 1999, data showed that the
construction
industry
ranked
highest in number of accident cases
with 78 cases, followed by
manufacturing with 20 cases and
services with 8 cases.

COMMON TYPES OF ACCIDENTS

Suffocation (1)
Collapse of structure/
excavation (2)
Electrocution (4)
Struck or hit by falling
objects/materials (6)
Falls (11)
0

10

Source: Bureau of Working Conditions-Department of Labor & Employment

15

SAFETY PROBLEMS IN CONSTRUCTION


1) Workers are temporary and constantly changing, as a result there
is often a tendency to take shortcuts.
2) Each site includes many contractors performing different types of
work in close proximity to each other.
3) Working surfaces, machinery, trenching, and scaffolding are
constantly moving, being reassembled, and modified and new
hazards are continually emerging.
4) Workers often do not have control over the physical hazard
present on the work-site.
5)

Environmental hazards are often encountered by the workers.


These include toxic gases generated as by products of
combustion, dust from cutting saws, vapors from solvent, and
noise from equipment.

SOME REASONS WHY RP CONSTRUCTION


INDUSTRY LAG IN SAFETY
1) Failure of contractors, builders, and owners to realize
freedom from accidents is a major step towards
construction efficiency.
2) Persistent use of inefficient and unsafe construction
methods aside from seeming absence of work planning.
3) Lack of formal training and education of construction
personnel and workers in safety procedures.
4) Difficulty or laxity in implementing government regulations,
codes, and standards governing construction safety.
5) Inadequate government control of safety practices in
construction sites.

SAFETY AND HEALTH CONDITIONS


IN CONSTRUCTION WORKSITES
1. SAFETY & HEALTH MANAGEMENT
Poor Compliance on:
Organization of Safety Health Committee
Recording & Reporting of Accidents/Illnesses
Employment of Safety and Health Personnel
Provision of Adequate First-Aid Medicines
2. HOUSEKEEPING
obstructed passageways
accumulated wastes
floor & wall opening

SAFETY AND HEALTH CONDITIONS


IN CONSTRUCTION WORKSITES
3. WELFARE FACILITIES
comfort rooms are not provided
very few provide portable urinals
4. SCAFFOLDING

No Provision for:
guardrails/midrails
toeboards
access ladder
cross bracing/anchorage

SAFETY AND HEALTH CONDITIONS


IN CONSTRUCTION WORKSITES
5. LADDERS/STAIRS
made of defective materials
unsafe position
no handhold
6. LIFTING DEVICES
safe working load is not indicated
7. CONCRETE WORKS
inhalation of cement powder
skin contact with cement mixture

SAFETY AND HEALTH CONDITIONS


IN CONSTRUCTION WORKSITES
8. FORMWORKS
no helmet and safety shoes
improper handling of tools
9. EXCAVATION

no barrier around excavation


equipment/vehicle park near the edge of excavation
no shoring or timbering
no access ladder

SAFETY AND HEALTH CONDITIONS


IN CONSTRUCTION WORKSITES
10. STEELWORKS
no scaffolds
no safety belt, helmet, safety shoes, gloves
11. WELDING AND FLAME CUTTING

smoking while working


no fire extinguisher
no goggles, gloves
no frame or cart

SAFETY AND HEALTH CONDITIONS


IN CONSTRUCTION WORKSITES
12. WOODWORKING MACHINES
improvised machine
no mechanical guards
no push sticks
13. TEMPORARY ELECTRICAL FACILITIES

undersized service entrance


improper spacing of wires
wires installed in the scaffolds
live wires on wet floor
untaped splices

SAFETY AND HEALTH CONDITIONS


IN CONSTRUCTION WORKSITES
13. TEMPORARY ELECTRICAL FACILITIES
open safety switches
burned out fuses replaced by copper wires
improper grounding
14. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
no policy on the use of PPE
workers pay for their PPE

SAFETY AND HEALTH CONDITIONS


IN CONSTRUCTION WORKSITES
14. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
poor compliance from workers
feel uneasy
obstruction to job
cannot afford to buy
baldness
not aware of hazards
no orientation on the use of PPE

AGES OF VICTIMS
Construction Industry
Ages

17 - 18
19 - 21
22 - 25
26 - 30
31 - 35
36 - 40
41 -45
46 - 50
51 - 55
56 - 60
61 - 65

65 & above
0

10

20

30

40

No. of Cases

50

60

FACTS AND FIGURES ON OSH


Construction Industry
Seventeen percent (17%) of the surveyed companies
have experienced death in their present workplace
Seventy-one percent (71%) of the workplaces do not
have first-aid station
Seventy-two percent of the workplaces do not have
trained first aide personnel
Six (6) out of ten (10) claimed that Personal Protective
Equipment (PPEs) were not issued to them
Seventeen percent (17%) of the surveyed companies
accounted disability

FACTS AND FIGURES ON OSH


Construction Industry
Twenty-one percent (21%) of the surveyed companies
reported major injuries
Forty-two percent (42%) have minor injuries occurring
in the surveyed jobsites
Only seven (7) out of ten (10) used scaffoldings
Only two (2) out of ten (10) used lifelines
Only ten percent (10%) use their safety belts

HIDDEN COSTS OF ACCIDENTS


Represented by an ICEBERG

Direct Cost

Medical

Compensation
Time

Indirect and
Hidden Costs of
Accidents

lost from work by injured


Loss time by fellow workers
Damage to tools and equipment
Time damaged equipment is out of service
Spoiled work
Loss time by supervision
Loss of Production
Litigation costs
Damage to corporate image

CONSTRUCTION SAFETY

The first duty of


business is to survive,
and
the
guiding
principle of business
economics is not the
maximization of profit
it is the avoidance of
loss.
Peter Drucker

SAFETY TERMINOLOGY

Accident
Incident
Safety
Control
Hazards
Risk
Safety Programs
Management
Safety Audit

ACCIDENT
Is an undesired event that results in harm to
people, damage to property or loss to
process.
It is usually a contact with a source of energy
above the threshold limit of the body or
structure.

INCIDENT
Is an undesired event which, under slightly
different circumstances, could have resulted
in harm to people, damage to property, or
loss to process.

Accident Ratio Study

REACTIVE/POST
ACCIDENT/LOSS
REPORTING

PROACTIVE
POSITIVE
REPORTING

MAJOR or
SERIOUS

10

MINOR
INJURY

30

PROPERTY
DAMAGE/LOSS

600

NEAR-MISS

SAFETY
Is the control of hazards to attain an
acceptable level of risk.

CONTROL
To regulate or restrain.

HAZARDS
Are Unsafe Practices or Conditions,
that if not controlled, may result into
the occurrence of an accident or an
incident.
H.W. HEINRICH STUDY
Unsafe Practices - 88%
Unsafe Conditions - 10%

UNSAFE ACTS
Are behaviors which could permit
the occurrence of an accident or
incident.
Deviation from standard
procedures or practices.

UNSAFE CONDITIONS
Are circumstances which could
permit the occurrence of an
accident or incident.
Deviation
from
standard
conditions (equipment, materials,
or environment).

RISK
Is a chance of a physical and
personal loss.

SAFETY
Is the control of recognized hazards to
attain an acceptable level of risk.

SAFETY PROGRAMS
Are activities designed to assist
management and employees in the
recognition, evaluation and control of
workplace hazards.

MANAGEMENT
Is a special group of people whose job is to direct
the effort and activities of other people toward
common objectives.
Getting things done through other people.

MANAGEMENT
Manage from Italian maneggiane meaning to
handle or train horses. Root word is Latin manus,
hand.
Management-a process by which managers create,
direct, maintain and operate purposive organization
through coordinated, cooperative human effort.
Getting things done through other people.

SAFETY AUDIT
is a critical examination of the safety and
health
management
programs
to
determine
their
effectiveness
and
compliance to regulatory standards.

Safety Compliance Audit Steps


Project Initiation

Site Visit
Audit Preparation
Establish Communication
Protocols
Prelim Information Request
Customize Audit Approach

Opening Conference
Site Inspections
Site Interviews
File Review
Classification of Findings
Closing Conference

Reporting of Findings
Verbal Presentation
Draft Report
Client Review/Comment
Final Report

Follow-Up

PROACTIVE ACCIDENT PREVENTION CONCEPT

A
ACCIDENT
CCIDENT
ACCIDENT

UNS
UNSA
AFE
FE
A
ACT
CTS
S

UNABLE

UNAWARE

HAZARDS

UNS
UNSA
AFE
FE
CONDIT
CONDITIONS
IONS

UNMOTIVATED

UNIDENTIFIED

CONTROLS - ACCIDENT PREVENTION ACTIVITIES


SAFETY INSPECTIONS
NEW HIRE ORIENTATION
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION
JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS
SAFETY MEETINGS
COACHING/DISCIPLINE

UNCORRECTED

SAFETY
FRAMEWORK

CONSTRUCTION PROJECT SAFETY


MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK
FRAMEWORK

SAFETY
PLANNING

SAFETY
OPERATIONS

SAFETY
CONTROL

SAFETY
CHECKPOINTS

CONSTRUCTION
WORK PLAN

HAZARD
ANALYSIS

SAFETY INSPECTION

SAFETY STANDARDS

EMPLOYEE
ORIENTATION

TRAINING

SAFETY POLICY,
PROGRAM,
ACTIVITY PLAN

SAFETY MEETINGS

SAFETY DUTIES,
FUNCTIONS,AND RESPONSIBILITIES

COACHING &
DISCIPLINING

REPORTING &
INVESTIGATING
ACCIDENTS
MOTIVATING
FOR SAFETY