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flora & fauna
Unlike in the past, habitat destruction and other
environmental damage are eroding our
natural flora


Fast-diminishing wealth - The now extinct

Cheetah is a
concern for the many species of Indian
wildlife under threat

Composed by :Umang Shandilya





Flora is basically the plant life that is present in a particular region or

habitat or at a particular time and fauna is the animal life that is
present in a particular region or habitat or at a particular time.
Biodiversity is a very large topic and somewhat difficult to define
adequately in only a sentence or two. In the very simplest terms,
"biodiversity" means the diversity of life on our planet, which
includes genetic diversity, species diversity, and habitat diversity.
Diversity can be defined as the number of different items and their
relative frequency. For biological diversity, these items are organized
at many levels, ranging from complete ecosystems to the chemical
structures that are the molecular basis of heredity. Thus, the term
encompasses different ecosystems, species, genes, and their relative
abundance." The area of flora, fauna and biodiversity is quite
interrelated. Flora and fauna forms a major part of biodiversity.


The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned

because of the apparently incorrect priority in the face of dire poverty
of the people. However Article 48 of the Constitution of India specifies
that "the state shall endeavour to protect and improve the
environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country"
and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of
India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests,
lakes, rivers, and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures."
Large and charismatic mammals are important for wildlife tourism in
India and several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these
needs. Project Tiger started in 1972 is a major effort to conserve the
tiger and its habitats. At the turn of the 20th century, one estimate of
the tiger population in India placed the figure at 40,000, yet an Indian
tiger census conducted in 1972 revealed the existence of only 1827
tigers. Various pressures in the later part of the 20th century led to the
progressive decline of wilderness resulting in the disturbance of viable
tiger habitats.
Conservation projects have been established to preserve them, but for
some species, such as the Indian cheetah, protection has come too
late - the Indian cheetah was last seen in 1948.

Seven steps to save

flora & fauna

Species and ecosystems need space to develop and recover. At least 10% of
all ecosystem types should be under protection to maintain nature and
natural landscapes.
Without biodiversity there will be no agriculture. Farming practices should
not jeopardize species survival: improving farmland diversity and reducing
the usage of pesticides and fertiliser are key efforts to saving biodiversity.
Organic agriculture practices can serve as an example in many areas.
75% of all fisheries are fully exploited or over-fished. Species like cod,
haddock and halibut are already threatened. If we do not move towards
sustainable use, there will be no fish left for our grandchildren.
Roads, factories and housing destroy habitats for animals and plants. If
urban and rural development continues to ignore nature, our surroundings
will be dominated by concrete and pollution.

Climate change is considered to be the greatest

challenge for humanity. With changing conditions,
ecosystems and habitats will change as well. It is an
obligation to fight climate change and make sure that
species can migrate or adapt to new surroundings.
If you release a species outside its usual habitat, it might
simply die. In other cases, the so-called alien invasive
species have thrived and destroyed local flora and fauna.
As you never know how things turn out, reducing these
invasions is crucial.
Biodiversity is the foundation for sustainable
development. Its ecosystem services provide the basis
for all economic activity. Biodiversity concerns need thus
be integrated into all areas of policy-making. Measures
include market incentives, development assistance,
biodiversity-friendly trade and international governance