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AR60

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
07
Asst. prof. Ar.A.Sivaraman
M.Arch

Introduction

Vernacular architecture

is a category ofarchitecture based on local needs, construction materialsand


reflecting local traditions.
At least originally, vernacular architecture did not use formally-schooledarchitects,
but relied on the design skills and tradition of local builders.
However, since the late 19th century many
professional architects
have worked in
versions of
the style.
It tends toevolveover time to reflect
theEnvironmental,Cultural,Technological,

Economic,

andHistoricalcontext

in which it exists. While often difficult to reconcile


withregulatoryand popular demands of the five factors mentioned, this kind of
architecture still plays a role in architectureanddesign, especially in local branches.
VERNACULAR
Vernacular architecture can be contrasted againstpolite architecture
which is
ARCHITECTURE
and
characterized by stylistic elements of design intentionally incorporated forDefinition
aesthetic

Vernacular architecture

- Etymology

The termvernacularis derived from


theLatinvernaculus, meaning "domestic, native,
indigenous"; fromverna, meaning "nativeslave" or
"home-born slave".
VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture
- Expert Words

a building designed by an amateur without any training in


design; the individual will have been guided by a series of
conventions built up in his locality, paying little attention
to what may be fashionable.
The function of the building would be the dominant factor,
aesthetic considerations, though present to some small
degree, being quite minimal.

Ronald W
Local materials would be used as a matter of- course,
ReaderinArchitectureattheUniversityofManchester
other materials being chosen and
importedBrunskill
quite
Authority on thehistory of architectureand particularly on Britishvernacular architecture
exceptionally.
VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture
- Expert Words

.comprising the dwellings and


all other buildings of the people. Related to
their environmental contexts and available resources they
are
customarily owner- or community-built, utilizing
traditional technologies.
All forms of vernacular architecture are built to meet
specific needs,
-Encyclopedia
of Vernacular
accommodating
the values,
economies and
Oliver
of the
ways of Architecture
life of the cultures
that World
produce Paul
them.
Cambridge University
VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture
- Expert Words

"Folk building growing in response to actual needs,


fitted into environment by people who knew no better
than
to fit them with native feeling"

-Frank lloyd
wrigh
ARCHITECT
VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular

Thearchitecture
termsvernacular,folk,traditional,
- Expert Words

andpopulararchitecture
are sometimes used synonymously.
.

-Wikipedia

Vernacular Architecture

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture

What Is Folk Architecture


?
- Expert Words

folk building orfolk architectureis built by "...persons


not professionally trained in building arts...

-Wikipedia
Vernacular Architecture

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture

What Is VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE


?
- Expert Words

vernacular architectureis stillof the common


peoplebut may be built by trained professionals such
as through anapprenticeship, but still using local,
traditional designs and materials.

-Wikipedia
Vernacular Architecture

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture

Architecture
?
- Expert Words

What Is Traditional

Traditional architectureis architecture is passed down


from person to person, generation to generation,
particularly orally, but at any level of society, not just
by common people.

-Wikipedia
Vernacular Architecture

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture

What Is Popular Architecture


?
- Expert Words

The term popular architecture is used more in eastern


Europe and is synonymous with folk or vernacular
architecture

-Wikipedia
Vernacular Architecture

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture

What Is POLITE Architecture


?
- Expert Words

Vernacular architecture can be contrasted againstpolite


architecture which is characterized by stylistic elements
of design intentionally incorporated for aesthetic
purposes
which go beyond a building's functional requirements.

-Wikipedia
Vernacular Architecture

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture
- Expert Words

NOTE:
In architectural terms, 'the vernacular' can be
contrasted with 'the polite', which is characterised by
stylistic elements of design intentionally incorporated
by a professionalarchitectfor aesthetic purposes which
go beyond a building's functional requirements.
Between the extremes of the wholly vernacular and the
completely polite, examples occur which have some
vernacular and some polite content,often making the
differences between the vernacular and the polite a
matter of degree.

-Wikipedia
Vernacular Architecture
VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture

What Is Diff Between Vernacular


And Traditional
- Expert Words

Architecture ?
The vernacular architecture is not to be confused with
so-called "traditional" architecture, though there are
links between the two.
Traditional architecture also includes buildings which
bear elements ofpolite design:templesandpalaces,
-Wikipedia
for example, which normally would not be included
under the rubric of "vernacular.
Vernacular Architecture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernacular_architecture

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
Architecture

lk Architecture

Polite
Architecture

Traditional
Architecture
VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture

- Ronald W
ReaderinArchitectureattheUniversityofManchester
Brunskill

Classification Based On
ENGLAND Context

Authority on thehistory of architectureand particularly on Britishvernacular architecture


VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture
Classification Based On
INDIAN Context

DOMESTIC
ARCHITECTURE

AGRICULTURAL
ARCHITECTURE
INDUSTRIAL
ARCHITECTURE

+
Classification Based On
INDIAN Context

RELIGIOUS
ARCHITECTURE

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture
Classification Based On
INDIAN Context

DOMESTIC
Vernacular
Architecture

AGRICULTURAL
Vernacular
Architecture
INDUSTRIAL
Vernacular
Architecture
RELIGIOUS
Vernacular
Architecture

Comprises of the buildings designed for


living (activity participated by the entire
family such as eating, sitting, sleeping,
storage etc,) and the ancillary buildings such
as wash area, kitchens, stores etc. It also
includes private houses used for domestic
accommodation,
rest
houses of
and
shops
Comprises of all the
buildings
the
where
domestic
activities
over
farmstead
apart
from thepredominated
farm house and
its
the
commercial.
domestic
ancillaries, stables, poultry shed,
Comprises
all the buildings which houses
cart
shed of
etc.
industrial related activities such as wind
and watermill, corn and lime kilns,
potteries etc.
Comprises
of all religious buildings such as
temples, churches, mosques etc.

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
Vernacular architecture as a process
architecture

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
as a process

Vernacular
Vernacular architecture as a process
architecture

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
as a process

Tradition can be seen as a creative process through


which people, as practice agents, interpret past
knowledge and experiences to face the challenges
and
Vernacular
demands of the present.

Vernacular
architecture as a process
architecture

The contemporary fields of anthropology, cultural


geography, history & archaeology, these studies have
increasingly stressed the dynamic and processional
nature of tradition.
As a reference to precedent and a social construction,
tradition invites commentary and interpretation and is
often continuously re-negotiated, from generation to
generation.
As such it allows for creativity, and for adaptations and
innovations that may ultimately, when they have been
socially accepted, be interrogated and be part of the
tradition.

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
as a process

Vernacular
Survey And Study Of Vernacular
architecture
Architecture:
Methodology

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture
Components Of
Vernacular Architecture

1.Construction
walling materials
and
Techniques

construction, foundations,
roofing shape,
materials
2.Cultural
Background
Geographical location and evolutio

3.Planning
Documented Through Plans,
Sectional Forms To Show How The
Internal Arrangement Of These
Buildings
Are Done And How
They
4.Architectural
Detail
Are Revealed On The Exterior

Windows, Staircases,
External And
Internal Ornamentation
5.Other Data

Place, Time, Context, Use, User Grou

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture
Mind
Map

Extensive Recording

Period Of Study

complete

Intensive Recording

Vernacular study

Systematic methods
in the study of Vernacular Architecture

Building Types

3
Documentary Study

1
Identify Site
STUDY OF VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture

STUDY OF VERNACULAR ARCHITECTUR


Systematic
methods
in
the
study
Vernacular Architecture includes:

of

IDENTIFY SITE - The scope of any study


must be defined clearly. Geographical area
of the study should be demarcated clearly.

BUILDING TYPES Typologies in the


study area to be carefully analyzed. Study
starts with the analysis of a single
residential unit, then to the buildings in the
community, cultural and industrial use.

PERIOD OF STUDY - The time of study


influences the character of the buildings.
VERNACULAR
For eg: The period of study
has a
ARCHITECTURE
significant impact on the built
form,
Definition
and

Vernacular
architecture

STUDY OF VERNACULAR ARCHITECTUR

Study of

A complete Vernacular
operations at three levels:

Exterior of the buildings

Study of

interior of the buildings

Documentation of

Tangible and Intangible


character of the building

study

includes

EXTENSIVE RECORDING - A systematic


method of recording relevant details in a
superficial way.
It is basically the
reconnaissance survey including the visual
impacts.
INTENSIVE RECORDING Survey of
selected
examples
from
extensive
recording based on
Typologies and its
significance in the study area.
DOCUMENTARY STUDY includes the
historic survey, archaeological survey,
documentary evidences such as title
deeds, revenue departments etc.
VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
Cultural And Contextual Responsiveness Of
architecture
Vernacular
Architecture:
An Overview

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
Cultural And Con textual Responsiveness
architecture
Of Vernacular
Architecture:
An Overview
A Culture
is a way of life of a group of people-the
behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols
that they accept generally, without
thinking about them, and that are passed
along by communication and imitation
from one generation to the next.

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
Cultural And Contextual Responsiveness Of
architecture
Vernacular
Architecture:
An Overview

The way of life of building occupants, and the usage of shelters, greatly
influences building forms. The size of family units, spatial usage, preparation of
food, interaction of people and many other cultural considerations affects the
layout and size of dwellings.

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
Cultural And Con textual Responsiveness
architecture
Of Vernacular
Architecture:
An Overview

Contextual
responsiveness

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Climate

Vernacular
Cultural And Con textual Responsiveness
architecture
Of Vernacular
Architecture:

Materials
Construction, and Technology
Climate - Imperatives of climate An
as determinants
Overview of
form for shelter

Materials, Construction, and Technology


-Evolution of form gives way to various materials and
techniques available i.e. the progressive development
of the cave, to the circular hut, to the rectangular hut in
its various forms.

soci
al

Contextual
Vernacular
architecture
responsiveness
of

Cult
ural

Site

Defense

Site - Influence of site on house form hilly terrain,


ecological determinism, lack of land, etc.
Defense -Tight / closed settlement patterns as a form
resulting from defense-needs
Economics - Exerts constraints on house
development, but does not account for house form

Religion - Anti-physical determinism (neglecting


Religion

Economics

material factors) - attributes form of houses


to religious
VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
or spiritual views and beliefs; orientation,
plan and
Definition and
spatial arrangements may be affected by religious

Vernacular
Cultural And Contextual Responsiveness Of
architecture
Vernacular
Architecture:
An Overview
Culture also has a great influence on the
appearance of vernacular buildings, as occupants
often decorate buildings in accordance with local
customs and beliefs.

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Vernacular
architecture

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
Definition and

Related Interests