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INTRODUCTION:

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Concepts related to
development:
GROWTH: It refers to PHYSICAL changes
given in an organism; they are quantitative,
ie can be measured and tabulated.
MATURATION: BIOLOGICAL changes given
in the human being that will allow the acquisition
of new capabilities.
DEVELOPMENT: PSYCHOLOGICAL changes
that affect the way you feel, think, behave and act.

Growth, Maturation and Development


processes run parallel and in harmony.

Developmental and
psychological currents
Environmentalist psychology
Mechanistic trend
Considers the person as a machine
which reacts and acts as it is externally
stimulated. The subjects thus conceived
are not capable of reasoning or of taking
decisions by themselves and their development
depends on external or environmental stimuli.
This environmental psychology, this way of
seeing things, comes or derives from
empiricist philosophy. The development,
for this trend, is a continuous process that
depends on learning models that are
acquired as maturation occurs in the body.
Therefore, the changes that occur are

Developmental and
psychological currents
Innatist psychology

Organicist trend

Could be linked to philosophical


rationalism. The individual is seen
as an active organism with an active
dynamic and towards one end, whose
development does not rely on the
exterior, but on itself.
From this model was derived the innatist
psychology according to which, behavioral
changes in the individual are the result of
internal processes. The development is
considered as a batch process in which
the changes given are sorted qualitatively
into different stages.

Developmental and
psychological currents
Interactionist psychology

Psychological current which accepts


that people, to develop, require
environmental factors such as innate
or hereditary factors, giving the same
importance to both of them. This third
pathway called interactionist, is a
consequence of the first two and still
is confined to an empiricist and rationalist
way of thinking.

Developmental and
psychological currents
Contextualist-Interactionist psychology

Or cultural context, which attempt to


explain the development otherwise.
According to them, the subject is
conceived in development, and the
environment is conceived as part of a
unique system where both interact
mutually: the person is an element of the
part and, therefore, a change in any
element of the system affects the other
elements of the same system (holistic).
Developing social interactionist, subject
and medium are part of a single system.

Developmental and
psychological currents
- Behaviourism

J.B.Watson

Environmentalist

B.F.Skinner

- Social Learning

Innatism

A. Bandura

Gestalt

Wertheimer,KhleryKofka

Cognitivism

J.Piaget

Moderate
Interactionism

Psychoanalysis

S.Freud

E.Erikson

Social (contextual)
Interactionism

Dialectical perspective
Lewinian perspective

L.Vygotski
U.Bronfenbrenner

Sensory development in
childhood
First humans contacts with

the surrounding world (even

Through senses.

in the womb)
- Allow baby the contact with the medium.
At birth, the senses:
- Work as receptors that help them to build as
beings.
Objectives of the didactic unit:

See how they will organize perceptual experiences in childhood.

Analyze functional and anatomical structure of sensory systems in


childhood.

Be aware of the importance of sensory stimulation in early


childhood education.

Adaptations for children with sensory variations.

Sensation and perception


First sensations
Is the baby at birth, in a state of indifferent perception?

In the womb has been subject to certain rhythms set


by the biological process.

At birth must adjust and coordinate his physiological


functions to the outside world.

He will experience sensations from the environment


and his own body and accumulate his first experiences
as an entity separated from the mother's body.

The accumulation of experience will provide a new


capability: the perception.

Sensation and perception


Process of sensory information

Sensation
Perception
It is the possibility to

Sensation and differentiate


perception
some objects
organize stimuli and to

It is an impression that happens


in the brain by the excitation
caused by sensory receptor
due to stimulation by external
or internal world.

from others.
Reference to the
subject.
Is considered a

Reference to the
object.

basic cognitive
function.

Principles of perceptual
organization
Gestalt laws. Principles.

The phenomenon of perception is given as a whole.

Any change in any element affects the entire perceptual


phenomenon.

The perception of human being is not applied on isolated elements


of the environment, but perceptual fields.

The organization of the perceptual field determines the perceptual


phenomenon.

Perception is originally organized and structured from the moment


of birth.

There has been tested primarily on visual perception.

All of these apply to the overriding concept of simplicity. Basically,


this says that the mind will try to turn visual chaos into something
simple. You may look up in the sky and see a bunch of crazy
clouds, but given a second your mind will start to put them in
simple shapes. Look at a tree and your mind will see the overall
Knowing
perceptual
canthe
help to
shape ofthe
the principles
canopy, notofthe
millions of organization
individual shapes
leaves make
up.
The wholeperception.
of the shape is more important to our
understand
the
childhood
perception than the sum of all the little parts.

Principles of perceptual
organization
Gestalt laws. Principles.
Statements.

Law of Appeal or Good Shape.

Law of Proximity.

Law of Similarity.

Law of Closure.

Law of Continuity.

Law of Figure and Group.

Other Laws:
Law of Perceptual Constancies.
Law of Perceptual Predisposition.

Principles of perceptual
organization
Gestalt laws
Law of Appeal or Good Shape
that

Basic principle
governs all other

laws.
Human perceptual organization
tends to perceive a structure
more simple, balanced, stable
and regular as possible. Here for
example we tend to see a dog
rather than many other
complicated forms.

Principles of perceptual
organization
Gestalt laws
Law of proximity
Tend to perceive together,
or as a single object, the
elements close in space
or time.

Principles of perceptual
organization
Gestalt laws

Law of similarity
Items that are similar
tend to be grouped
together. Here, most
people see vertical
columns of circles
and squares.

Principles of perceptual
organization
Gestalt laws
Law of closure
Complete figures are
perceived when in fact
they are not.

Principles of perceptual
organization
Gestalt laws

Principles of perceptual
organization
Gestalt laws

Figure and Ground Law


When the figure-ground
relation is ambiguous,
perceptions of figure and
background are alternate
and can not be seen both
images at once.

PRINCIPLES OF PERCEPTUAL
ORGANIZATION

Other laws
There are another two laws that dont appear
at
Gestalt, butCONSTANCY
follow the same line.
PERCEPTUAL
LAW:
To our perception,
known
objects maintain constant
size,
shape,
color,
etc.
despite the possible variation
of
the
stimuli
on
its
presentation.
Top line is perceived larger
than the bottom line, though
they are identical in size.

PRINCIPLES OF PERCEPTUAL
ORGANIZATION
Perceptual Expectancy law:

Other laws

It is expected to perceive what fits with


the preconceived ideas.

SENSATION CLASSES
- Exteroceptives : Receive stimuli from
exterior.
Propioceptives:
Receptors are in
jointsinside
and the
- Intraceptives
: muscles,
Stimuli tendons,
come from
vestibular apparatus.
the body.
Enable perception of muscle tone, position,
movement, balance ...
Gutsceptives:

Receptors are in the guts.


Human being is hardly aware of them.
Are essential for the homeostasis of the organism.

SENSATION CLASSES
Protopatics

Are the first sensations that affect baby.


Are related to their states of pleasure or
displeasure.
Are highly subjective.
Epicritics

Are higher, superior and more complex than


Protopatics.
They do not have so subjective nature.
Receive their stimuli from the outside world.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Reception and processing of
sensations.
SENSORY SYSTEMS
Touch
Vestibular
How it is formed.
Taste
How it is developed in childhood.
Smell What the most common disorders are.
Hearing
Vision

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Touch system
Touch is which provides information about the
tangible qualities of objects.
Its receptor organ is the skin.
Skin

receptors:

Pacinis corpuscles
pressure.
Meisners corpuscles
Free nerve endings
Rufinis corpuscles
(heat).
Krauses corpuscles
The

Perceive the degree of


Perceive contact sensations.
Perceive the pain.
Capture the temperature
Perceive cold sensation.

received impressions are sent to


the brain cortex.

SENSORY SYSTEMS

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Touch system
Development:

The fetus is sensitive to touch and the baby has a


very early tactile sensitivity. Touch is one of the
first senses to develop.
The newborn explores his power supply (breast
or nipple) through oral sensitivity.
Baby applies tactile perception, first with his
mouth and then with his hands and soles of the
feet.
From the sixth or seventh month, he will
specialize in certain areas.

Most common disorder Touch insensitivity.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Kinesthetic system
The kinesthetic system is through which
are
perceived the muscle tone, body movement and
disposition of its members, the weight, the relationship
between the different parts of the body and its position
in space.
It is made up of:
The

vestibular apparatus:
- Vestibular sacs.
- Semicircular canals.
- Vestibular nerve.

Sensory

receptors in muscles and tendons.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Kinesthetic system
Development

It is very early in the newborn, but perceives the


movement.

Its development will be in line with psychomotor


development.

Disorders

Because of congenital malformations, trauma or infection.

Can have:
Loss of balance.
Ignorance of the status or position of the body.
Uncoordinated movements.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Taste
Located in the oral cavity.
Taste receptors
Taste QualitiesLocation of receptors

Sweet and salty

Tip of the tongue

Acid

Sides of the tongue

Bitter

Back, throat and palate

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Taste
Development

The flavour is
slightly
different from
taste,
because is a
combination of
taste and smell.

Well developed in the baby.

Discriminate taste qualities.

Prefers sweet and to the 4th month begins to accept


salted food.

Disorders

Hypogeusia: Decrease of the taste sensitivity.

Ageusia: Lack of taste sensitivity.

Parageusia: Misinterpretation of tastes.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Smell
Smell can perceive qualitative and quantitative changes
of different odors.
Olfactory apparatus is located
at the top of the nostrils.
Olfactory receptor cells are
located in the yellow pituitary.
Through the olfactory nerves
odors reach the olfactory bulb,
which is responsible for sending
the information to the appropriate
area of the brain.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
The perceptual
Smell

evolution of smell
is linked to the
development of
taste.

Development
Highly developed at birth.
Discriminate pleasant odors from unpleasant odors.
It reaches its maximum development at 3 years.
Most common disorder

Insensitivity

Partial or total loss of


the smelling ability.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
The Ear

The ear picks up sound vibrations from de medium and transform them
into electrical impulses that will be interpreted in the brain cortex.The
ear is divided into three parts:
External ear.
Auricle.
External auditory canal.
Tympanic membrane.

Middle ear.
Tympanic box with chain hammer, anvil and stirrup.
Eustachian tube.
Oval and round windows.

The inner ear.


Cochlea.
Organ of corti. It contains hair cells (auditory receptors).
Acoustic or cochlear nerve.

The
Ear
SENSORY

SYSTEMS

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Development
The new born:
Has a hearing loss because of the maturity of the auditory
nerve and occlusion of the ear canals.
Can distinguish intensity, timbre and pitch of a sound.
Can hear whispers.
Notreact tomonotonous sounds and is able to locate a
sound.
At 12 hours can distinguish human language from other sounds.
At 2 days reacts to loud sounds made close or by.
At 7 days recognizes the voice of parents.
At 2 months he moves his head towards a sound or noise.
At 3 or 4 months can concentrate on the sound.
Towards the three months reaches optimum maturity.

SENSORY SYSTEMS

Disorders

Depending on the location of the disorder:


Alterations in transmission.
Alterations inperception.

Depending on the level of operation:


Total deafness.
Hearing loss.

Depending on hearing loss:


Slight deafness.
Medium deafness.
Severe deafness.
Profound deafness.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Sight
Sight is the sense for capturing the light through the visual
system. The
eye is the receptor through which visual stimuli are perceived.
The eyeball is composed of:

3Layers:
External layer:Formed by the sclera and cornea.
Middle layer or uvea: Formed by ciliary body, iris and
choroid.
Inner layer or retina: It consists of the fovea, the rods
(photoreceptors) and the optic nerve disc.

3chambers:
The front and the back containing the aqueous humor.
The central chamber containing the vitreous humor.

Lens

SENSORY SYSTEMS

Sight

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Development
The newborn is able to distinguish light from dark, but its visual
acuity is very poor (can not distinguish shapes and colors).

At one month can gaze on a large object in front of him and

follow 90 degrees.

At 2 months can make converge and accommodate, and also

follow an object with his eyes on a journey of 180 degrees.


At 3 months turns his head to follow a moving object.

At 4 months he has a 180 degree visual horizon.

At 6 months has acquired eye-hand coordination and perceived

depth.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Disorders
Of

refraction:
- Myopia.
- Hyperopia.
- Astigmatism.
Mobility:
- Strabismus.
- Reception:
- Colour blindness.
Severe alterations:
- Amblyopia.
- Blindness.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Disorders. Myopia

Light rays converge before reaching the retina. The


image is formed in front of the retina and only see
objects that are nearby.

It is corrected with diverging lenses.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Disorders.Farsightedness
(hyperopia)
The light rays converge behind the retina. The image
is formed behind the retina and only see remote setting
objects.

It is corrected with converging lenses.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Disorders.Astigmatism

The cornea does not refract light evenly, because its


curvature is not uniform, so that the light rays do not
converge at the point of suitable retina. Shapes are
distorted and the vision is blurred.

It is corrected with cylindrical lenses.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Disorders.Strabismus

Includes the loss of normal parallellism of the eye.

It can be:
Unilateralorbilateral.
Convergent,divergent andvertical.

It is corrected:
Plugging the eye and exercising eye Muscle.
By surgery.
In the newborn there is a standard
strabismus due to lack of control of the
eye muscles, but if you keep after six
months it can be sign of alteration.

SENSORY SYSTEMS
Disorders
Colour blindness. Altered colour
perception due deficiencies of the cones.

Amblyopia.Vision or acuity visual


decreased or reduced.

Blindness. Lack of vision or lack of visual


perception.