You are on page 1of 144

Production of 35 000 metric

tonnes
1,4- Butanediol
EH 221L
GROUP MEMBERS
NURUL SYAZMIMI BINTI HAMZAH
FAIZ SHAFIQ BIN ZAILI
NURUL ATIKAHAFIFAH BINTI MD FAUZI
NUR HIDAYAH BINTI MOHD SANIP
SAIFUL BAHRI BIN LIMAN
IKHWAN AMADI BIN ZULKIFLI
SUPERVISOR
PROF. MADYA DR. AYUB MD SOM

Outline

Molecular formula:
Also known as
Tetramethylene glycol or 1,4hydroxybutane
colorless viscous liquid

Property

Description

Physical state

Liquid

Melting / freezing point

20.1

Boiling point

228

Flash point

>149

Water Solubility

soluble

Self-Ignitable

356
Source: (BioAmber, 2012)

Effect Assesment

Result
Can give effect through the skin, ingestion and
inhalation.

Routes of exposure

Slight eye and skin irritant.


Overexposure may cause coughing, shortness
of breath, dizziness, central nervous system
depression, intoxication, and collapse.

Aquatic Ecotoxicity
Persistence and degradability

Not harmful to aquatic invertebrate and aquatic


plant.
This material
biodegradable.

is

expected

to

be

readily

Source: (BioAmber, 2012)

Source: (Industry Overview, 2008)

Process

Raw Material/s

Reppe

Acetylene
Formaldehyde

ARCO

Propylene oxide

Mitsubishi

1,3 Butadiene

BioAmber

Bio-succinic acid

Process

Advantage

Disadvantage

Short production

Dangerous long distance

process

Reppe

High production
efficiency
Low operating cost

transport for acetylene


Limited availability of
acetylene
Expensive equipment

Simple production
technology

ARCO

Efficient utilization of
steam from production
process

Produced more by-products

Process

Advantage

Disadvantage
Complicated long

Little liquid waste produced


Mitsubishi Co-production of
tetrahydrofuran

production process
High investment cost
Energy consuming
Serious erosion of
equipment

Renewable feedstock
BioAmber Economic sustainability
Better environment

Concern regarding
feedstock from mankind
food supply

Reppe

Indicator
Factor

weightag
e (%)

Raw

Score
(1-100)

ARCO

Weightage
score

Score
(1-100)

Mitsubishi

Weightage
score

Score
(1-100)

Weightage
score

BioAmber
Score
(1-100)

Weightage
score

25

60

15

70

17.5

60

15

80

20

15

75

11.25

50

7.5

65

9.75

75

11.25

15

50

7.5

60

60

80

12

10

55

5.5

40

60

65

6.5

Safety

15

40

60

50

7.5

70

10.5

Total

100

55.25

57

55.25

74.25

material
Reaction
Availabilit
y
Output

Hydrogenation of
diethyl succinate
to butanediol

Catalyst:
CuO/ZnO

Reactor:
Fixed
bed reactor

Reaction

Reactants

Product

By-products

Esterification

Succinic acid
Ethanol

Diethyl
succinate

None

Hydrogenation

Hydrogen
Diethyl
succinate

Butanediol

Tetrahydrofur
an
Gamma
butylactrone

OUTLINE

Price of 1, 4-Butanediol
Region

Price
(USD/ton)

United States

2780-3000

Asia

2737-2744

Western Europe

2199-2264

Estimation of purchased equipment costs


Equipment
Reactor
Distillation
Column
(base
condition)
Compressor
Pump
Heater
Cooler

Unit

CP0(2015)

CBM(2015)

Total Cost

2
2

(USD)
113,194.58
43,691.0494

(USD)
452,778.308
441,803.567

(USD)
905,556.62
883,607.134

1
4
4
4

100,682.40
7,057.00
83,543.08
36,405.30

704,776.78
36,202.42
302,794.78
213,440.10

704,776.78
144,809.68
1,211,179.12
853,760.4

TOTAL EQUIPMENT COST, CTBM = 4,703,689.734

Contigency and fee


costs, CFC
Total module costs, CTM
Auxiliary facilities costs, CAF
Grass roots costs, CGR

CFC = 0.18 CBM,i

846,664.1521

CTM = 1.18CBM,I = CFC +

5,550,353.886

CTBM
CAF = 0.30 CBM,i
CGR = CTM + 0.30 CBM,i

1,411,106.92
6,961,460.806

Where:

Nnp = Number of nonparticulate processing steps


NOL = Number of operators per shif
P = Number of processing steps involving
handling of particulate solids
Assume that the salary of an operator for a year is
around USD 2,501.98/year (90,000 baht/year) then

Equipment

Utility

Cost

Yearly Cost (USD/year)

Compressor (K-100 A/B)

Electric rate

0.07USD/kW

72,944.43

Pump (P-100 A/B)

Electric rate

0.07USD/kW

56.20

Pump (P-101 A/B)

Electric rate

0.07USD/kW

806.97

Pump (P-102 A/B)

Electric rate

0.07USD/kW

25.56

Pump (P-103 A/B)

Electric rate

0.07USD/kW

529.55

Heater (E-100 A/B)

Steam from boiler (LPS)

13.28 USD/GJ

63,566.80

Heater (E-101 A/B)

Steam from boiler (LPS)

13.28 USD/GJ

63,566.80

Heater (E-102 A/B)

Steam from boiler (LPS)

13.28 USD/GJ

318,205.81

Heater (E-103 A/B)

Steam from boiler (LPS)

13.28 USD/GJ

106,278.92

Heater (E-107 A/B)

Steam from boiler (LPS)

13.28 USD/GJ

106,278.92

Cooler (E-104A/B)

Cooling water

4.43($/GJ)

26,691.24

Cooler (E-105 A/B)

Cooing water

4.43($/GJ)

26,691.24

Cooler (E-106 A/B)

Cooling water

4.43($/GJ)

26,691.24

Total cost of utilities, CUT

812,333.68

Raw Material
Bio-succinic acid

Cost
(USD/MT)
2000

Quantity
(MT/year)
30507.80

Cost (USD/year)
61,015,600.00

Hydrogen

1500

1592.24

2,388,360.00

Ethanol

1650

18984.04

3,575,761.20.00

TOTAL 66,979,721.20
The total of manufacturing cost without depreciation,

The taxation rate is assumed to 20%


based on the overall taxation rate
range
Revenue, R is the sale cost of product
which is 1-4 Butanediol. The calculation of
revenue is as follow:

Where, n = year and inom = 5.4%

Year, n

Investment

After Tax Cash

Cash flow

Cash flow

Cumulative

Cumulative

Flow

(Non-

(discounted)

cash flow

cash flow

(Non-

(Discounted)

discounted)

Discounted)

4,916,075.18

-4,916,075.18

4,916,075.1
1

1,834,957.83

8
-

-4,916,075.18 4,916,075.18
-1,740,946.71

1,834,957.8
2

2,752,436.74

3
-

-2,477,628.14

-6,751,033.01 8,878,956.09
-

2,752,436.7
3
4
5
6

11,385,522.1

4
4,287,919.81 4,287,919.8

4
1
4,323,927.35 4,323,927.3

9
6
4,285,519.31 4,285,519.3

1
1
3,393,896.73 1,402,178.12
4,262,474,48 4,262,474,4 3,108,981,421. 4,265,868,379
3

83

-9,503,469.75
3,662,054.66

4
-

3,503,611.52

-5,215,549.94 7,894,351.31
-

3,294,582.61

-891,622.58 4,542,268.27
-

94

.73 1,104,481.95

Quantity
0

Variable Cost,

Total Revenue,

Fixed Cost,

Total Cost, TC

VC

TR
0

FC
84,305,583.94

= FC + VC

10,000

84,305,583.94
863,833.68

23,000,000

20,000

-40,033,251.30
84,305,583.94

2,591,501.04

-17,897,084.98
84,305,583.94

4,239,081.34
84,305,583.94

26,375,247.66
84,305,583.94

48,511,413.98
84,305,583.94

70,647,580.30
84,305,583.94

92,783,746.62
84,305,583.94

614,716,388

207,000,000

114,919,912.94
84,305,583.94

100,000

8,638,336.8

546,924,334

184,000,000

90,000

7,774,503.12

479,132,279

161,000,000

80,000

6,910,669.44

411,340,224

138,000,000

70,000

6,046,835.76

343,548,169

115,000,000

60,000

5,183,002.08

275,756,114

92,000,000

50,000

4,319,168.4

207,964,059

69,000,000

40,000

3,455,334.72

140,172,004

46,000,000

30,000

230,000,000

-84,305,583.94
-62,169,417.62

84,305,583.94
1,727,667.36

4,587,894.57
72,379,949

Profit

682,508,443
137,056,079.26

Outline
Marketing 1,4 Butanediol
Comparison between country
Criteria for site location
Market, Labor,Cost etc.

Comparison between Industrial Estate


Site location proposed of production plant.

The right location allows maximum


allowance future expansion.

Selection

criteria for location:-

profit

with minimum operating costs and

Global BDO production, 2015


ASIA PACIFIC
25%

1%

19%

EUROPE
55%

NORTH
AMERICA
OTHER

Source: (Merchant Research & Consulting Report, 2015.)

No.

Country

Sarnia, Ontario

Lestrem , France

Production
capacity (MT/y)

Owner

Operating
year

30 000

BioAmber

2013

500

Reverdia

2010

Lake Providence, Louisiana

77 300

Myriant

2013

Barcelona, Spain

25 000

BASF-PURAC

2013

Pomacle, France

3 000

BioAmber

2010

Leuna, Germany

5 000

Myriant

2012

Cassano Spinola, Italy

10 000

Reverdia

2012

Rayong, Thailand

65 000

BioAmber

2014

Source:(Doris de Guzman, 2013)

Factor

A. Rayong, Thailand.

B. Ontario, Canada

Raw materials (MT/y)


Transportation
Land
Sea

65 000
Road, Railways
Laem Chabang Deep Sea Port

30 000
77 300
Road, Railways
Road, Railways
Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Port of New Orleans

&

Waterway

Manpower

Air

Map Phut Deep Sea Port


U-tapao
pattaya
international Sarnia

Chris

C. Louisiana, USA

Hadfield Chennault international

airport

Airport

airport

Available

Available

Available

Available

Water

0.49US$/cubic meter

$1.52/cubic meter (m3)

$2.41per 1,000 gallons

Electrical

First 10 kW/h 2.3422 USD /kWh

2000 kW/h - 223.91 USD

6.90 USD/ kWh

Four season country

Humid subtropical

availability

Over 10kWh 3.4328 USD/kWh


Climate

Tropical savanna climate


Wet and dry seasons

Long,Hot,
summer
Short mild winter

humid

Figure : Maps of Asia countries, Source:(Worldatlas, 2015)

Maps of Thailand

Source: (

Figure : Maps of Division at Thailand country, Source: (


Thailand,) 2015)

Climate at Rayong :
Tropical wet and dry season.
Two seasons happen that is
rainy season and dry season
Average rainfall of about 45~48
cm per monthly begin Jun to
September.
Over the course of a year, the
temperature typically varies
from 23C to 33C

Figure : The average rainfall , Rayong Thailand

i)Comparison between Industrial Estate


Amata City Industrial

Hemaraj Rayong

Estate

Industrial Land

25.9 KM

10.7 KM

30.0 KM

Provided by estate

Provided by estate

Provided by estate

Distance from raw

-13 km to PTT Public

-20 km to PTT Public

-21.1 km to PTT Public

material (Hydrogen)

Company Limiteds natural

Company Limiteds

Company Limiteds

gas

natural gas

natural gas

Plant location

Asia Industrial Estate

Distance from raw


material (Bio- succinic
acid)

Distance from raw


material (Ethanol)
Vacant Size Estate
(hectare)
Water supply
Utilities

70 km to P. S. C. Starch
Products Public Company

Products Public

Products Public

Limited

Company Limited

Company Limited

515.2

2299.2

1519.52

37 000

20 000

15,000

Amata Water Cooperation LTD (0.36

Hemaraj Clean Water Company

US/cubic meter2)

Limited

(m 3 / IE / day).

50 km to P. S. C. Starch 50 km to P. S. C. Starch

AIEMTP

ii)Comparison between Industrial Estate


Utilities

Water Supply

Asia Industrial Estate

Amata City Industrial Estate

Hemaraj Clean Water


Company Limited

-Amata B Grimm Power Limited


Power Supply

Metropolitan Electricity Authority

-Provincial Electricity Authority

-GHECO-One Co., Ltd

(MEA).

of Thailand (PEA)

- PTT Utility Company Limited

-(0.10 USD/ Kwh)


Provided by PTT Public Company

Provided by PTT Public Company

Provided by PTT Public Company

Limited (PTT)

Limited (PTT)

155

114

57

Airport (km) Suvarnabhumi Airport

150

99

130

Laem Chabang Deep Sea Port

60km

27km

60km

405.28 / 240

1344/940

1379.36/186.72

3.75

2.80

4.7

3.7 Million

2.3 Million

2.5 Million

Available

Amata Water Co., Ltd

Hemaraj Water Company Limited

155

114

57

Gas Supply Hydrogen


Distance from Bangkok (Thailand Capital)
(KM)

Industrial Zone /Available area (hectare)


Land price (million baht/rai)
Selling Price(million baht /hectare)
Waste water management
Distance from
Bangkok (KM)

Limited (PTT)

Ranking indicator

Indicator
weight

Ranking ( 0 100)
Asia Industrial

Amata City

Hemaraj Rayong

Estate

Industrial Estate

Industrial Land

Raw Material (Distance)

30 %

20

25

21

Utilities

20%

16

18

15

Land availability

10%

Land Price

20%

12

15

10

Transportation availability

20%

10

15

10

Climate change

5%

Manpower Availability

4%

Maintenance

1%

100 %

72

85

67

TOTAL

Table : Total weightage table on selection site location at Rayong, Thailand.

No.

Raw material

1.

Hydrogen (50 km )
Company Name : PTT Public Company Limited
Capacity: 280,000 barrels per day
Source :(P. P. C. Limited, PTT)

2.

Ethanol
Company Name: P.S.C. Starch Products Co., Ltd. (50 km )
Capacity : 200,000 L per day
Source : (P. S. C. S. P. P. C. Limited, 2010)

3.

Bio-succinic Acid (10 km)


Company Name:- PTTMCC Biochem Limited
Capacity : 65,000 MT
Source :(Inc., 2014)

Area (Province)

Wages rate per


day
US$

Baht

Samut

6.44

206

Nakhon

6.41

205

Thani, Samut Sakhon


Chon Buri

5.75

184

Phra

5.66

181

Ayutthaya
Chachoengsao

5.63

180

Rayong

5.56

178

Bangkok,
Prakan
Nonthaburi,
Pathom

,Prathum

Nakhon

Source : (Road, 2014)

Si

Source : (Organization, 2014)

Plant Location
Manpower
more

Amata City Industrial Estate

availability

skilled

and

Total Population of Rayong Province is around

semi 674,393 million. Students from Rayong English

skilled labour resources

Programme School, St. Andrews International


School,

Green

Programme

Valley

School,

and

Rayong

Rayong

English

Witthayakom

College , Sukhumvit Rd College, Taksin Maharat


Rd College , Burapha University, Rajamangala
University of Technology Tawan and
Asian University

Figure : The propose plant location at Amata City Industrial Estate, Rayong ,Thailand. Source:(Goggle, 2015)

GPI (Global Peace Index)


Country

Global Peace Index (GPI) across all 162 GPI countries in year
2015

Laos
China
Malaysia
Singapore
Thailand
Japan
India
Taiwan
Philippines
Vietnam
Indonesia
Myanmar

41
124
28
74
126
8
143
35
141
56
46
130

Initiative : ADVANTAGES
Thailand provide advantages and benefits at free zone to give exemption and
reduction.

No.

Aspects

1.

Foreign merchandise

2.

Import/Export tax

3.

Tariff tax

4.

Value added tax

5.

Excise tax on machinery ,equipment and


parts, raw materials

Minimum Wage Rate (2014)


Minimu
m Wage

300 Baht

Area
Bangkok,

Phuket,

Rayong,

Nakhonpathom,

Nonthaburi,

Pathumthani,

Samutsakhon, Chonburi, Chachoengsao, Saraburi, Ayutthaya, Rayong, Phangnga,


Ranong, Krabi, Nakhonratchasima, Prachinburi, Lopburi, Kanchanaburi, Chiangmai,
Ratchaburi,

Chantaburi,

Petchaburi,

Songkhla,

Sing

Buri,

Trang,

Nakhonsrithammarat, Angthong, Loei, Chumporn, Phatthalung, Satun, Sakaeo,


Samutsongkhram,

Narathiwat,

Ubonratchathani,

Udonthani,

Nakhonnayok,

Pattani, Nongkhai, Lampoon, Buengkan, Trat, Kamphaengphet, Uthaithani, Kalasin,


Khon

Kaen,

Chainat,

Suphan

Buri,

Chiang

Rai,

Nakhonsawan,

Buriram,

Phetchabun, Yasothon, Roiet, Sakonnakhon, Chaiyaphum, Mukdahan, Lampang,


Sukhothai,

Nongbualamphu,

Nakhonphanom,

Phichit,

Phitsanulok,

Phrae,

Mahasarakham, Mae Hong Son, Amnatcharoen, Uttaradit, Surin, Tak, Nan, Sisaket
and Phayao

Table 3.12: Minimum Wage Rate at Thailand.


Source : (Road, 2014)

OUTLINE

ASSUMPTIONS

1.80% conversion of Succinic acid


2.Isothermal reactor
3. Feed ratio 1:2

Esterification of Succinic Acid

REACTOR R-100

Succinic acid = 30 kmol/h


(98% SA, 2% H2O)

Feed ratio

80% conversion of Succinic Acid

Ethanol required
1 mole succinic acid : 2 mole of Ethanol
:

Water produce

Total of water at OUTLET stream

COMPONENT MASS FLOW

Before recycle (R-100)


Inlet
Stream
Component

Succinic acid

Ethanol
Water
Diethyl
Succinate
Total

Outlet

10

kmol/h

kg/h

kmol/h

kg/h

kmol/h

kg/h

29.4

3472.14

5.88

694.228

60

0.6

10.81

47.64

860.38

23.52

4097.26

6247.15 kg/h

2764.2 12.96 597.07

6248.95 kg/h

Assumptions
1. Feed ratio 1:2

2.REDUCE ethanol FRESH FEED


3.Isothermal reactor

Esterification of Succinic Acid

After recycle (R-100)

After recycle (R-100)


Inlet
Stream
Comp.
Succinic
acid

Ethanol
Water
Diethyl
Succinate
Total
(kg/h)

Outlet
Ethanol recycle

10

kmol/h

kg/h

kmol/h

kg/h

kmol/h

kg/h

kmol/h

kg/h

29.4

3472.14

5.88

694.228

0.6

10.81

47.64

23.52 4097.26

47.04 2167.13 12.96 597.07 12.96 597.07

6247.15

860.38

6248.95

Distillation column T-100

Assumption
Liquid-liquid separation
unit
All unreacted ethanol
separated at the top of the
column
Unreacted ethanol recycle
back into the reactor

Distillation column T-100 summary


Inlet
5

Stream
Compone
nt
Succinic
acid
Ethanol
Water
Diethyl
Succinate
Total

Outlet
Ethanol waste

kmol/h

kg/h

kmol/h

kg/h

kmol/h

kg/h

5.88

694.228

5.88

694.228

12.96
47.64

597.07
860.38

47.64

860.38

12.96
-

597.07
-

23.52

4097.26

23.52

4097.26

6248.95 kg/h

5651.25 kg/h

597.07kg/h

Reactor R-101

Assumption
100% conversion of succinic
acid, diethyl succinate
Isothermal reactor
Feed ratio 3:10, 1:2

Feed ratio
3 moles Succinic

acid : 10 moles Hydrogen


:

1 mole Diethyl

succinate : 10 moles Hydrogen


:

Total Hydrogen required

Amount of BDO, THF and GBL produce


First reaction

Amount of water produces


Total water in outlet stream

Second reaction

Total BDO produce

COMPONENT COMPOSITIONS (R101)


Inlet
Stream
Component

Outlet

10

11

kmol/h

kg/h

kmol/h

kg/h

kmol/h

kg/h

5.88

694.228

90.16

181.763

47.64

860.38

61.36

1108.16

23.52

4097.26

BDO

49

4415.88

THF

1.96

141.336

1.96

168.736

Succinic acid
Hydrogen
Water
Diethyl
Succinate

GBL
Total

5833.03 kg/h

5834.11 kg/h

Distillation column T-101

Assumption

Liquid-liquid separation unit


All THF and water separated
on the top of the column

Distillation column T-101 summary


Inlet
Stream

Outlet

11

13

14

Component

kmol/h

kmol/h

kmol/h

kg/h

kmol/h

kg/h

Water

61.36

1108.16

61.36

1108.16

BDO

49

4415.88

49

4415.88

1.96

141.336

1.96

141.336

1.96

168.736

1.96

168.736

THF
GBL
Total

5834.11 kg/h

4584.616 kg/h

1249.351 kg/h

OVERALL
MASS BALANCE

OVERALL MASS BALANCE

OVERALL MASS BALANCE


Stream

Inlet

Outlet

Ethanol

2167.13 kg/h

Ethanol recycle

597.07 kg/h

Succinic acid

3482.95 kg/h

Hydrogen

181.76 kg/h

Waste water

1249.351 kg/h

BDO

4584.616 kg/h

Ethanol waste

597.0672 kg/h

6428.91 kg/h

6429.03 kg/h

Total

Stream

Manual (kg/h)

HYSYS

% error

Stream 4

2167.13

2167.13

Ethanol recycle

597.07

659.3

10.42%

Stream 2

3482.95

3483

0.0014%

Stream 5

6344.26

6309

0.55%

Ethanol waste

597.0672

659.3

10.42%

Stream 6

5651.87

5650

0.03%

Stream 9

181.763

181.76

Stream 10

5651.87

5650

0.03%

Stream 11

5834.11

5831

0.04%

Stream 13

4584.616

4569

0.341%

Stream 14

1249.351

1262

1.012%

Outline

Source: Yaws, C. L. (1999). Chemical


Properties Handbook. New York,
McGraw-Hill.

Source: Yaws, C. L. (1999). Chemical


Properties Handbook. New York,

Specific Heat Capacity Of Solid


Component

Source: Yaws, C. L. (1999). Chemical


Properties Handbook. New York,
McGraw-Hill.

Assumption
Reactive Process

Non-Reactive
Process

Pressure
change
is
negligible
( P < 50 bar)
Isothermal reactor,
( Inlettemp= Outlettemp )
Reference state: T=25
at P=1 atm
Energy balance for R100
calculated
using
Heat of Reaction Method
and the required data are
tabulated in table 10

Reference state: T=298


K
at P=1 atm
Molar flow rates and
composition of
components in and out of
non-reactive processes
remained same.
All liquid and gas heat
capacities varied with
temperature.

Heat of reaction for Esterification of


succinic acid with ethanol:

Substitute the value of heat of formation:

To calculate enthalpy of inlet and outlet


of succinic acid (H1 ):

Table of calculated enthalpy in


Reactor (R-100):

Total Inlet Enthalpy = 4.04 x 10 KJ/h


Total Outlet Enthalpy = 1.28 x 10 KJ/h

Equipment

Value manual

Value Hysys

Error (%)

Q (kW)

(kJ/hr)

(kJ/hr)

Compressor

397809.5419

419149.5

5.091

110.503

Pump(P-100)

376.2164

329.472

14.188

0.105

Heater

581130.28

2302537.281

31.718

161.425

Reactor

-64575338.82

-4170089.85

92.71

-17937.594

-693.562

4122000

99.98

-0.193

-49573314.56

3457802.33

93

-13770.365

4405660.07

11462857

61.55

1223.79

(R-100)
Column
(T-100)
Reactor
(R-101)
Column
(C-101)

Equipment

Value manual

Value Hysys

(kJ/hr)

(kJ/hr)

Error (%)

Q (kW)

Pump (P-101)

417.9036

424.0671

1.453

0.116

Pump(P-102)

376.99

329.472

14.422

0.1047

Pump(P-103)

115.1362

36.14

0.032

Heater

180.288

2208017.41

228157.5

3.33

613.338

172475.996

71240.73

58.7

47.91

531505.141

73150648

37.63

147.64

Heater(E-103)

225193.698

190309.7

15.49

62.55

Cooler (E-104)

-1191000.552

419149.5

64.8

-330.83

Cooler (E-105)

-784202.728

3226.57

99.6

-217.83

Cooler (E-106)

-266311.266

581130.3

54.1

-73.97

(E-101)
Heater
(E-107)
Heater
(E-102)

Outline

Measure of risk:
Distillation Column(T-101)
Distillation Column(T-100)
Reactor (R-101)
Reactor (R-100)
Ethanol
Y-butyroactone
Tetrahydrofuran
1,4-Butanediol
Hydrogen
Bio Succinic Acid
0

Low

High

10

15

Medium

20

25

Description

Risk

Action

High

15-25

Substantial effort should be made to


reduce the risk. Risk reduction
measures should be implemented
immediate within defined time
period.

Medium

5-12

Consideration should be whether the


risk can be lowered if applicable to a
tolerable level and preferably to an
acceptable level.

Low

1-4

No additional control are required


unless can be implemented at very
low cost which is in terms of time,
effort and money.

Source: Guideline in Courier Industry, 2015

OUTLINES

Pollution Control Department

Waste management hierarchy

Thailand industrial water quality


Thai Industrial Effluent Standard
standard
Parameters

Standard Values
Not

more

than

20

Method for Examination


mg/l

Biochemical Oxygen

depending on receiving water or

Demand (BOD)

consideration of PCD but not

type

of

industry

under

Azide
Modification at 20 C ,
5 days

exceed 60 mg/l
Not

more

than

120

mg/l

Chemical Oxygen

depending on receiving water of

Demand (COD)

consideration of PCD but


not
Source:
(Pcd.go.th, 2009)

type

of

industry

under

Potassium Dichromate Digestion

exceed 400 mg/l

COD and BOD for industrial effluent should not


exceed the standard, 60 ppm and 400 ppm

Waste Water Calculation


Compon

Mass flowrate

Volume flowrate

on

( kg/hr )

( m3/hr )

THF

0.1120

141.344

0.1396

WATER

0.8757

1105.133

1.094

GBL

0.0123

15.523

0.0154

ent

Formula

Compositi

Calculation for THF ,

+ 5.5 4 C + 4
1 mol of THF required 5.5 mol of oxygen gas
Oxygen demand = 5.5 mol X 32 g/mol
= 176 g
Concentration of THF = 141.344 (kg/h) 0.1396 ( )
= 1012. 4928 (kg /)
Since 1 kg / = 1000 mg /
= 1012492.837 (mg /)


COD
=

= 469561.8954 mg/L
= 469561.8954 ppm
But,
X 469561.8954 ppm = 2582590.425 ppm

BOD is 1/3 of COD, thus


= x 2582590.425 ppm
= 860863.4749 ppm


Calculation
for GBL ,

+ 4.5 4 C + 3
1 mol of GBL required 4.5 mol of oxygen gas

Oxygen demand = 4.5 mol X 32 g/mol


= 144 g
Concentration of BDO = 15.523 ( kg/h )
0.0154 ( )
= 1007.987013
( kg / )


COD
=

375064.9351 ppm

But ,
X 375064.9351 ppm = 1687792.208
ppm

BOD is 1/3 of COD , thus


= x 1687792.208 ppm
= 562597.4026 ppm

Waste water stream :


Source from overhead of distillation column T-101
( STREAM 14 )

Comp
Comp
Comp
Comp

Mole
Mole
Mole
Mole

Component
Frac
Frac (DiESuccinate)
(DiESuccinate)
Frac (SuccinicAcid)
Frac (SuccinicAcid)

Comp Mole Frac (14- diol)


Comp Mole Frac (gamaBLactone)
Comp Mole Frac (gamaBLactone)
Comp
Comp
Comp
Comp
Comp

Mole
Mole
Mole
Mole
Mole

Frac
Frac
Frac
Frac
Frac

(O)
(Hydrogen)
(Hydrogen)
(Ethanol)
(Ethanol)
(TetraHyFuran)

Comp Mole Frac (TetraHyFuran)

Composition
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0121
0.0121
0.9573
0.9573
0.0000
0.0000
0.0306
0.0000
0.0306

Stream

Waste Water

Vapour Fraction

Temperature (C)

25

Pressure (kPa)

130

Molar Flow (kgmole/h)

64.10

Mass Flow (kg/h)

1314

Liquid Volume Flow (m3/h)

1.326

Heat Flow (kJ/h)

-18240000.00

Based On Calculation
THF :
COD : 2 582 590.425 ppm
BOD: 860 863.4749 ppm

GBL :
COD: 1 687 792.208 ppm
BOD : 562 597.4026 ppm

Both COD and BOD exceed the


standard, 60 ppm and 400 ppm
respectively .

Pre-treatment Of THF

Source : DuPont, Can. Patent


546,591 (1957)

Name : Pressure Distillation column


Pressure : From atmospheric to 689.475 kPa or 6.89475 bar
Bottom Distillation : Dried THF sell to market demand
Overhead Distillation : Delivered to waste water treatment
plant
all side product of THF is marketable and being sold .

Treatment of GBL
Precursor for GHB drug, thus it is
controlled substances .
The production of GBL are monitored
thus the recovery for GBL are
neglected .
Although the COD and BOD for GBL
exceed limits, yet the GBL treated in
the waste water treatment only.

Waste water treatment

Physical process : Aeration tank


Biochemical process: Stabilizer , coagulation,
neutralization , flocculation tank

Primary treatment : Stabilizer , coagulation,


neutralization , flocculation and primary
clarifier
Secondary treatment : Biological and aeration
in aeration tank , other equipment
Tertiary treatment : Disinfection tank
The sludge treatment and disposal : Filter
pressing utilities ( waste activated sludge )

CHAPTER 7 : HYSYS

PFD

Related Interests