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OTC000601 WDM Basics
ISSUE 1.20

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Upon completing of this course, you will…
 Grasp the basic characteristics and types of optical fiber;
 know the light source and photodetector;
 know the working principle and characteristics of various types

of optical amplifiers;
 Know the basic knowledge of passive optical components;
 Master the basic knowledge's and key technologies of WDM

system.

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Chapter 1 Optical Fiber
Chapter 2 light Source and Photodetector
Chapter 3 Optical Amplifier
Chapter 4 Passive components
Chapter 5 WDM System

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Chapter 1

Fiber

 1.Single-Mode Fiber (SMF)
 2.Properties of Fiber
 3.Classifications of Single Mode Fiber
 4.Nonlinear Effects of Single Mode Fiber

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Structure of Single-Mode Fiber and Refractive Index Profile  Structure of a fiber coating d2 d1 cladding n2 core n1 cladding n2 coating  Refractive index profile n1 n1 n2 n2 d HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. d All rights reserved Page 5 . LTD.

LTD.ion Absorption C_band HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Fiber Attenuation  Attenuation in optical fiber is mainly determined by three types of loss: absorption loss.. scattering loss and bend loss. λ(nm) 1550 1310 All rights reserved L_band Page 6 . Attenuation(dB)  Attenuation coefficient ( unit:dB/km ) OH.

. All rights reserved Page 7 .Dispersion red orange yellow White light green cyan blue purple HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

...  Dispersion in SMF is classified into chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) pulse pulse Fiber cladding λ1 λ2 λ3 . Fiber core Fiber cladding HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..Dispersion in Single Mode Fiber (SMF)  Dispersion in fiber refers to a physical phenomenon of signal distortion caused when various modes carrying signal energy or different frequencies of the signal have different group velocity and disperse from each other during propagation.. λ1 λ2 λ3 . All rights reserved Page 8 .

Input laser is not momochromatic. separated. Page 9 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. and propagation delay. or DISPERSED output pulse. All rights reserved The different wavelengths arrive at different times to BROAD.Chromatic Dispersion DATA IN DATA OUT Input laser Optical receiver L The chromatic dispersion in the fiber causes different wavelengths to travel at different speeds. it is composed of many wavelength or colour..

Dispersion (ps/nm·km)  Dispersion coefficient ( unit : ps/nm·km ) G. 1550 All rights reserved G. LTD..653 λ(nm) Page 10 .Chromatic Dispersion  Generally. two kinds of dispersion exist in single mode optical fiber.655 G.652 fiber 17 1310 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. they are material dispersion and waveguide dispersion.

Polarization Mode Dispersion - PMD Slow in propagation Ellipse fiber core Fiber profile Fast in propagation Delay time Detector power Signal response HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 11 . LTD..

Inter-symbol Interference  Broaden pulse caused by dispersion will bring the adjacent consecutive pulses to overlap. λ3 λ 3λ 1 All rights reserved λ1 Page 12 .. T T+ΔT λ3 λ1 λ3 λ1 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

. MFD Fiber core HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.Mode Field Diameter and Effective Area  Mode field diameter ( MFD ) describes the concentrate level of optical energy in the single mode fiber. All rights reserved Page 13 .

653 17 C_band HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.ion Absorption G.. LTD.655 G. λ(nm) 1550 1310 All rights reserved L_band Page 14 Dispersion (ps/nm·km) Attenuation(dB/km) Types of Optical Fiber .652 fiber G.OH.654fiber G.

All rights reserved Page 15 . LTD..Nonlinear Effects in Single Mode Fiber  Stimulated Nonelasticity Scattering  Stimulated Brillouin Scattering(SBS)  Stimulated Raman Scattering(SRS)  Kerr effect  Self-phase Modulation(SPM)  Cross-phase Modulation(XPM)  Four-wave Mixing(FWM) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved Page 16 .  Stimulated Brillouin Scattering(SBS)  Limiting the optical power of single wavelength , threshold power is smaller for spectrum line lasers.. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. threshold power is100mW. LTD.Stimulated Nonelasticity Scattering  Stimulated Raman Scattering(SRS)  Limiting the injection power.

All rights reserved Page 17 . LTD..Kerr Effect  Self-phase Modulation (SPM)  Broaden the signal's spectrum.  the influence of dispersion becoming bigger.  Cross-phase Modulation  Limiting the input optical power and the wavelength spacing. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Four-Wave Mixing  Four-wave mixing (FWM) occurs in the case that two or three light waves with different wavelength interact and cause new light waves at other wavelengths. F132. All rights reserved Page 18 .213 f113 F231. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.312 F123. LTD..F321 F221 F112 F223 F1 F2 F332 F331 F3 Uneven and relatively large channel spacing can reduce FWM.

what is the influence of the dispersion in the optical fiber?  What are the types of optical fibers? What features do they have?  What are the phenomena of the non-linearity effect in single-mode optical fiber? HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 19 ..Questions  What are the properties of optical fibers?  In the propagation of optical pulse signal. LTD.

Summary  optical fiber consists of core. the refractive index of core must be bigger than that of the cladding’s.  Dispersion in single mode optical fiber consists of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion. dispersion will result in inter-symbol interference .  The properties of optical fiber are attenuation coefficient. LTD. and finally causes bit errors. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. cladding and coating. All rights reserved Page 20 . dispersion coefficient. Kerr effect and FWM.  Non-linear effects consists of stimulated nonelasticiy scatter. cutoff wavelength. mode field diameter and effective area. In the digital communication.

LTD. All rights reserved Page 21 ..Chapter 1 Optical Fiber Chapter 2 light Source and Photodetector Chapter 3 Optical Amplifier Chapter 4 Passive components Chapter 5 WDM System HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved Page 22 . LTD..Chapter 2 Light Sources and Photo Detectors  Light sources  Laser modulation modes  Types and characteristics of photo detectors HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved Page 23 .  Wide spectrum.  Inexpensive. high bit rate  expensive  Suit for long distance HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.  LED  Poor beam focus. low bit rate..Types and Characteristics of Light Source  Low output power.  Suit for short distance communications  FP-LD (MLM)  DFB-LD (SLM)  High output power  Good beam focus  Narrow spectrum.

Modulation Techniques  Direct modulation (internal modulation) ;  Indirect modulation (external modulation) :  Electro-Absorption modulation  Mach-Zehnder modulation HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. All rights reserved Page 24 .

low loss and low cost Disadvantages: modulation chirp transmission distance ≤ 100km transmission rate ≤ 2.. All rights reserved Page 25 . LTD.5Gbit/s HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Direct Modulation Direct modulation is: Output laser is controlled by input current LD Current Laser Advantages: simple structure.

LTD.What is chirp? Chirp(as in bird chirping) is the deviation of laser frequency from its radiation-center frequency.. no chirp back edge fore edge positive chirp HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. negative chirp All rights reserved Page 26 .

All rights reserved Page 27 ..Electro-Absorption Modulator E-A modulation modulates the laser indirectly and adding an external modulator in its output path to modulate the light intensity. LTD.5Gb/s >600km)  Less chirp  High reliability  Complex technology LD EA HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  Support long haul transmission (2.

All rights reserved Page 28 ..Mach-Zehnder Modulator LD Advantages: • chirp can be almost zero • suit for long transmission distance Disadvantages: • Expensive HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

Comparision of Modulations For STM-16 Signal Types Direct Modulator Max.. LTD.dispersion 1200~4000 toleration EA Modulator M-Z Modulator 7200~12800 >12800 (ps/nm) Cost moderate expensive Very expensive Wavelength Stability good better best HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 29 .

All rights reserved Page 30 .  Positive Intrinsic Negative ( PIN )  Avalanche Photo Diode ( APD )  Dynamic ranges :  The difference of overload power and receiving sensitivity is called dynamic ranges.Photo Detector  The function of photoelectric detector is to convert the received optical signal to corresponding electric signal. generally about 20dB. Types Spectrum response Overload Power Optical Sensitivity PIN 1100 ~ 1600nm 0dBm -20dBm APD 1000 ~ 1600nm -9dBm -28dBm HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..

LTD. which type of laser can be selected?  How many types of photoelectric detector? What are features of them? HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. All rights reserved Page 31 .Questions  How many different types of LD modulation?  In the high rate and technology single mode communication.

. All rights reserved Page 32 . LTD.Chapter 1 Optical Fiber Chapter 2 light Source and Photodetector Chapter 3 Optical Amplifier Chapter 4 Passive components Chapter 5 WDM System HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD. Amplified optical signal All rights reserved Page 33 .Optical Amplifier  The optical power is increased by optical amplifier.. OA Input optical signal HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD.Gain(dB) Common Parameters of Optical Amplifier  Gain  Noise Figure 30  Gain bandwidth 3dB 20  Saturated output power Gain 3dB PS Pout (dBm) Gain(dB) 10 0 λa Pout PT HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Pin All rights reserved Page 34 λb λ ..

Types of Optical Amplifier  Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA)  Raman Fiber Amplifier (RFA)  Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 35 ..

EDFA Energy Level Diagram  The stimulated radiation and ASE of Er3+ ions in the EDF  ASE accumulation is resource of noise E3 excited state Decay E2 metastable state Pump light 1550nm 1550nm signal light signal light E1 ground state HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.. All rights reserved Page 36 .

 High coupling efficiency.  High energy conversion efficiency.Active Medium is in fiber.  Stable gain characteristics.  Optical surge problem.  High gain. Major disadvantages of EDFA:  The gain wavelength range is fixed. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. All rights reserved Page 37 . low noise figure.Advantages and Disadvantages of EDFA Major advantages of EDFA:  Its operating wavelength is consistent with the minimum loss window of the SMF.  Gain bandwidth unflatness. large output power and low cross-talk.

All rights reserved Page 38 . LTD..The Operating principle of Raman Fiber Amplifier  Stimulated Raman Scattering(SRS) Gain Pump 30nm 70~100nm HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD..Characteristics of Raman Fiber Amplifier  Its gain wavelength is determined by the pump wavelength. All rights reserved Raman Pump Page 39 .  Low noise.  The gain medium is the transmission fiber itself. GAIN PUMP1 PUMP2 PUMP3 30nm 70~100nm Span 1 Span k EDFA EDFA Receiving transmitting Raman Pump HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Classifications of Raman Fiber Amplifier  Discrete Raman Fiber Amplifier  Distributed Raman Fiber Amplifier HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 40 ..

.RFAs and EDFAs HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 41 .

 Low noise. All rights reserved Page 42 .  Simple structure of amplifier.. GAIN PUMP1 PUMP2 PUMP3 30nm 70~100nm HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  Nonlinear effects can be reduced.Advantages of RFA Advantages:  Gain wavelength is determined by the pumping light wavelength . LTD.

 Optical components and optical fiber undertake high optical power.. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Disadvantages of RFA Disadvantages:  High pump power. All rights reserved Page 43 . adopting backward pump fashion.low efficiency and high cost. LTD.  Characteristics of gain online are not consistent.  Instantaneous gain.

polarization sensitivity  High temperature sensitivity. along with other semiconductor and photonic devices.Advantages and Drawbacks of SOAs Advantages:  Operating at the 1300nm and 1550nm wavelengths-even simultaneously.. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 44 . LTD.  Wide bandwidth(up to 100nm has been achieved)  Easy to integrate. into one monolithic chip called opto-electronic integrated circuit (OEIC) Drawbacks:  Relatively high crosstalk.

.Comparison of Three Types of Amplifiers Type EDFA SOA Raman Maturity maturity Not maturity maturity Gain high normal normal Bandwidth wider wide Very wide Coupling efficiency high low high Cost moderate high high HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 45 .

. All rights reserved Page 46 . what are optical amplifiers' advantages?  Summarize the operating principle and advantages of EDFA.Questions  What are two types of main optical amplifiers ? Which type of optical amplifier is in commercial?  Compared to regenerator. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  What is the main noise of EDFA?  Summarize the operating theory and advantages of RFA. LTD.

Chapter 1 Optical Fiber Chapter 2 light Source and Photodetector Chapter 3 Optical Amplifier Chapter 4 Passive components Chapter 5 WDM System HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 47 .. LTD.

Integrated Waveguide type: AWG  4. Comb Filter  5. All rights reserved Page 48 . Optical Grating type  3.Chapter 4 Passive Components  1. Isolator and Circulator  7. Dielectric film filter type  2. LTD. Coupler and Splitter  6. Optical Switch HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

. θ θ n1 λ/4 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Dielectric Thin Film Filter  The main features of dielectric film filter DWDM component are as follows: miniaturization and structural stability of the component can be implemented via design. the signal passband is flat and polarization-independent. and its insertion loss is low and channel isolation is good. LTD. n2 All rights reserved Page 49 .

. Glass All rights reserved Page 50 . LTD.Dielectric Thin Film Filter ¦ Ë1-4 ¦ Ë1 filter Self-focusing lens ¦ Ë1 ¦ Ë3 filter ¦ Ë2 ¦Ë 3 ¦ Ë4 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

.Fiber Grating Filter Ultraviole light interference ¦ 1˦ 2˦ 3Ë ¦ 2Ë Periodic variation of the refractive index (grating) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 51 . LTD.

. All rights reserved Page 52 . LTD.Integrated Waveguide type :AWG Waveguide grating λ1¡ ¡ λ2 Free space Fan-like waveguide Fan-like waveguide  Small spacing Large number of channels Flat pass-band HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved Page 53 . LTD..Coupler and Splitter HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

. All rights reserved Page 54 .Multiplexer using Coupler multiplexer HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

All rights reserved Page 55 .. bandwidth and crosstalk. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Comb Filter  The basic indices are insertion loss.

Isolator and Circulator HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. All rights reserved Page 56 .

Circulator Fiber grating  HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 57 . LTD..

or blocks optical power in an optical transmission line. All rights reserved Page 58 . redirects.. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Optical Switch  A passive component possessing one or more ports which selectively transmits.

All rights reserved Page 59 . LTD..Questions  How many classifications of common passive components?  What are their functions? HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

. The list of passive components includes couplers. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 60 . isolators.Summary  All components for WDM systems can be divided into active and passive. LTD. Optical switches implement logical action in optical domain. passive components work without power supply. and filters.

Chapter 1 Optical Fiber Chapter 2 light Source and Photodetector Chapter 3 Optical Amplifier Chapter 4 Passive components Chapter 5 WDM System HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 61 . LTD..

.Chapter 5 WDM System  Related Standards on WDM  Transmission Modes of WDM System  Application Modes on WDM  WDM Key technologies  Management of Laser safety  Optical Supervisory Channel HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 62 .

662/G.663… Relevant recommendations of OA G.691 Optical interfaces for single channel STM-64.694-1 Spectral Grids for WDM Applications: DWDM Wavelength Grid G. All rights reserved Page 63 .671 Characteristics of passive optical components G.655 Characteristics of a non-zero dispersion-shifted SMF G. LTD.709 Interface for Optical transport network G.692 Optical interfaces for multi-channel systems with OA M.. STM-256 systems and other SDH systems with OA G.3100 Generic network information module G.652 Characteristics of a single-mode optical fiber cable G.Related ITU-T Recommendations G.957 Optical interfaces relating to SDH system G.694-2 Spectral Grids for WDM Applications: CWDM Wavelength Grid HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.661/G.

. All rights reserved Page 64 .Operating Modes of WDM System Uni-directional WDM Single fiber unidirectional transmission HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

All rights reserved Page 65 . LTD.Operating Modes of WDM System Bi-directional WDM Single fiber bi-directional transmission HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

. All rights reserved OTU Access channels OTU Page 66 .Application modes-open system MUX DMUX Optical amplifier OSC HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

All rights reserved Page 67 . LTD..Application modes-integrated system MUX Access channels DEMUX Optical amplifier OSC HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved Page 68 . Technical measures:  DFB-LD  E-A Modulator  M-Z Modulator HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  2) Standard and stable wavelength. LTD.Light Source The light source of the DWDM system has two outstanding features:  1) Larger dispersion tolerance..WDM Key Technologies .

All rights reserved Page 69 . low crosstalk HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..Key Technologies of WDM System-Multiplexing and Demultiplexing  Large number of channels  Low insertion loss. less polarization dependence.  High isolation.

High isolation.. High insertion loss. suitable for integration Temperature sensitive Above 32 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Small number of channels Above 16 AWG Good flat spectral response.only used for multiplexer 16 and 32 Dielectric Film type low insertion loss. low cost.high stability.WDM System Key Technologies Type Advantages Disadvantages Product Coupling type multiplexer Simple mechanism. All rights reserved Wavelength system Wavelength system Wavelength system Page 70 . LTD.

LTD.. All rights reserved Wavelength Page 71 .Gain Characteristics of EDFA  Gain Flatness  utilizing heavily aluminum plus erbium-doped optical fiber and Gain Equalization Filter (GEF)  optimizing the optical structure 1525nm-1565nm non-aluminum-doped EDFA Gain 1525nm-1565nm aluminum-doped EDFA Gain Wavelength HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Impact of Gain Flatness in Long Haul Transmission

Cascading amplification of amplifier gain unflatness

Cascading amplification of amplifier gain flatness

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Gain Locking
Drop

>1dB

<0.5dB

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Gain Locking
Add

>1dB

<0.5dB
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Problems after Applications of EDFA
 1. Non-linearity problem

Although enhanced by adopting EDFA, the optical power is not
the higher the better. When it reaches a certain level, the
optical fiber will generate nonlinear effects (including Raman
scattering and Brillouin scattering).
 2. Optical surge problem
 3. Dispersion problem

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.Laser Safety  ALS (Automatic Laser Shutdown)  IPA (Intelligent Power Adjustment) T1 LA LA R2 LA A LA West Multiplex East Multiplex LA LA R1 T2 LA LA OTS OMS HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 76 .

supervision information  Operating wavelength 1510nm  Monitoring rate: 2Mb/s  add/extract OSC HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 77 ..Optical Supervisory Channel  Transmit related management . LTD.

. All rights reserved Page 78 . LTD.Typical Frame Structure of OSC 0 1 2 3 14 15 16 31 TS0: FAS TS1: E1 TS2: F1 TS3-TS14: D1-D12 (DCC channel) TS15: E2 TS16-TS31: reserved HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

code rate and code pattern of optical monitoring channel. All rights reserved Page 79 ..  What are the requirements of DWDM system for optical monitoring channel? HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.Questions  What are the applications of EDFA?  What are the requirements of DWDM system for the performance of EDFA?  Why is optical monitoring channel necessary? What are the wavelength.

Summary  WDM system can be divided into unidirectional WDM and bi-directional WDM. All rights reserved Page 80 .. LTD.  WDM system key technologies include light source. We can adopt open WDM system or integrated system. multiplexing/demultiplexing and optical amplification techology. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  OSC can transport the network management information.  In practice.

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