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C HAPTE R 6

SAMPLING AND ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL


CONVERSION

Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Copyright 2009 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Figure 6.1 Sampled signal and its Fourier spectra.

Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Copyright 2009 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Copyright 2009 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Figure 6.2 Ideal interpolation.

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Figure 6.3 Signal reconstructed from the Nyquist samples in Example 6.1.

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Figure 6.4 Practical reconstruction (interpolation) pulse.

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Figure 6.5 Practical signal reconstruction.

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Figure 6.6 Simple interpolation by means of simple rectangular pulse.

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Figure 6.7 Spectra of a sampled signal: (a) at the Nyquist rate; (b) above the Nyquist rate.

Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Figure 6.8 Aliasing effect. (a) Spectrum of a practical signal g(t). (b) Spectrum of sampled g(t).
(c) Reconstructed signal spectrum. (d) Sampling scheme using antialiasing filter.
(e) Sample signal spectrum (dotted) and the reconstructed signal spectrum (solid) when antialiasing filter is used.
Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Figure 6.9 (a) Non-band limited signal spectrum and its sampled spectrum G( f ).
(b) Equivalent low-pass signal spectrum Ga( f ) constructed from uniform samples of g(t) at sampling rate 2B.

Figure 6.9 (a) Non-band limited signal spectrum and its sampled spectrum G( f ).
(b) Equivalent low-pass signal spectrum Ga( f ) constructed from uniform samples of g(t) at sampling rate 2B.

Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Figure 6.10 Illustration of practical sampling.


Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Figure 6.11 Pulse-modulated signals. (a) The unmodulated signal. (b) The PAM signal.
(c) The PWM (PDM) signal. (d) The PPM signal.

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Figure 6.12 Time division multiplexing of two signals.

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Figure 6.13 PCM system diagram.

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Figure 6.14 Quantization of a sampled analog signal.

Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Figure 6.15 Nonuniform quantization.

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Figure 6.16 (a) -Law characteristic. (b) A-Law characteristic.

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Figure 6.17 Utilization of compressor and expander for nonuniform quantization.

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Figure 6.18 Ratio of signal to quantization noise in PCM with and without compression.

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Figure 6.19 Piecewise linear compressor characteristic

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Figure 6.20 T1 carrier system.

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Figure 6.21 T1 system signaling format.

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Figure 6.22 Time division multiplexing of digital signals: (a) digit interleaving; (b) word (or byte) interleaving;
(c) interleaving channel having different bit rate; (d) alternate scheme for (c).
Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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Figure 6.23 DM1/2 multiplexer format.

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Figure 6.24 Pulse stuffing.

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Figure 6.25 North American digital hierarchy (AT&T system).

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Figure 6.26 Plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) according to ITU-T Recommendation G.704.

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Figure 6.27 Transversal filter (tapped delay line) used as a linear predictor.

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Figure 6.28 DPCM system: (a) transmitter; (b) receiver.

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Figure 6.29 ADPCM encoder uses an adaptive quantizer controlled only by the encoder output bits.

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Figure 6.30 Delta modulation is a special case of DPCM.

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Figure 6.31 Delta modulation: (a) and (b) delta demodulators; (c) message signal versus integrator output signal
(d) delta-modulated pulse trains; (e) modulation errors.

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Figure 6.32 Voice signal spectrum.

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Figure 6.33 (a) Conventional delta modulator. (b)- modulator. (c) Simpler - modulator.

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Figure 6.34 (a) The human speech production mechanism (b) Typical pressure impulses.

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Figure 6.35 Analysis and synthesis of voice signals in an LPC encoder and decoder.

Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

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