You are on page 1of 24

EXERCISE 4

DETERMINATION OF THE
TOXIC EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE
GROUP 1 PHARMACY 4A
TOLEDO – SOLAIMAN – SISON – MASBATE – CAMILE –
BAHANDE - AMBULO

OBJECTIVES

• Examine physically the urine of the test
animals for the presence of caffeine
• Determine the toxic effects of caffeine on the
test animals given in large doses

.

OBSERVATION OR RESULTS URINE COLOR RAT 1 RAT 2 Without caffeine light yellow Light yellow With caffeine Yellow to dark yellow Yellow to dark yellow CNS EFFECTS RAT 1 RAT 2 Motor Behavior (+) (+++) Respiratory Rate and Depth BEFORE:152 AFTER: 180 BEFORE: 148 AFTER: 164 .

QUESTIONS .

it can contribute to gastritis .• DISCUSS THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF CAFFEINE Caffeine is a methylxanthine that produces mild stimulation by blocking adenosine receptors on neurons throughout the CNS because adenosine inhibits dopamine release. • Caffeine also relaxes most smooth muscles and causes diuresis by increasing renal blood flow because caffeine increases the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin. concentration. motivation and talkativeness by arousing the sympathetic system. caffeine indirectly enhances dopamine neurotransmission. • This action is probably responsible for the drug’s stimulant effects and dependence liability. it causes a mild stimulation of heart rate and blood pressure. elevates mood and increases alertness. • Caffeine use combats fatigue.

tachycardia and confusion. seizures. vomiting. hypokalemia and hyperglycemia may occur. delirium.GIVE THE SYMPTOMS OF CAFFEINE INTOXICATION IN HUMAN • The earliest symptoms of acute caffeine poisoning are usually anorexia. With serious intoxication. . anxiety. tremor and restlessness. irritability. Hypotension is caused by excessive beta2-mediated vasodilation and is characterized by a low diastolic pressure and a wide pulse pressure. These are followed by nausea. supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmia. • Chronic high doses of caffeine intake can lead to caffeinism (nervousness.

• Caffeine acts as a laxative and increases peristalsis (Peristalsis is muscle contractions that propel food through the digestive system) with bowel regulation.• WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE Caffeine increases neural activity in the brain. • Caffeine can make your blood pressure go up for a short time. dilation of air passages. Too much caffeine can also cause slowed fetal growth and increased risk of miscarriage. while reducing drowsiness and fatigue. nervousness. Since it is a stimulant. • Caffeine is absorbed from your stomach. •  Caffeine travels within the bloodstream and crosses into the placenta. it can cause your baby’s heart rate and metabolism to increase. anxiety. . anal sphincter relaxation and insomnia. This can contribute to bone thinning (osteoporosis).   • Caffeine in may interfere with absorption and metabolism of calcium. increased thirst and hunger. • Other nervous system effects of caffeine include increased heart rate. which leads to a temporary WHEN TAKEN IN MODERATION? increase in mental alertness and thought processing.

DISCUSS THE EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE ON THE FOLLOWING .

there is an increase in tense arousal.MEMORY AND LEARNING • Caffeine does not usually affect performance in learning and memory tasks. At low doses. jitteriness. while at high doses. in tasks in which material is learned intentionally. although caffeine may occasionally have facilitatory or inhibitory effects on memory and learning. but hinders performance in tasks that heavily depend on working memory. The ingestion of caffeine does not seem to affect long-term memory. caffeine improves hedonic tone and reduces anxiety. and caffeine appears to rather improve memory performance under suboptimal alertness conditions. . nervousness. caffeine has no effect. Caffeine facilitates learning in tasks in which information is presented passively. Caffeine facilitates performance in tasks involving working memory to a limited extent. including anxiety.

an increase in cardiac output. Ordinary consumption of caffeine usually produces slight tachycardia. and an increase in peripheral resistance. raising blood pressure slightly.HEART • Methylxanthines have positive chronotropic and inotropic effects. .

Also of a child is drinking caffeinated soda. they are also taking in a lot of sugar. It increases your heart rate and it increases your blood pressure.CHILDREN • Caffeine is absorbed in every body tissue. Caffeine changes your body temperature and your gastric juices. The brain of a child tends to be a little bit more sensitive to caffeine's effects than the brain of adults. Caffeine affects the central nervous system as a stimulant. it may even be under control in normal conditions. worsen stomach problems and create sleep problems. Caffeine can cause them to be hyperactive. which has the second effect of tooth decay. and the . caffeine can really increase anxiety. But it also can make them nervous. For kids who have some anxiety. anxious.

your baby cannot. Your baby’s metabolism is still maturing and cannot fully metabolize the caffeine. Because caffeine is a stimulant. soda. and even some over-the-counter medications that relieveheadaches. Caffeine is not only found in coffee but also in tea. chocolate. Be aware of .Any amount of caffeine can also cause changes in your baby’s sleep pattern or normal movement pattern in the later stages of pregnancy.IS THERE A CORRELATION OF CAFFEINE INTAKE DURING EXPLAIN • Caffeine isPREGNANCY? a stimulant and a diuretic. • Caffeine is found in more than just coffee. both of which are not recommended during pregnancy. it increases your blood pressure and heart rate. This causes reduction in your body fluid levels and can lead to dehydration. Remember. • Caffeine crosses the placenta to your baby. • Caffeine also increases the frequency of urination. caffeine is a stimulant and can keep both you and your baby awake. Although you may be able to handle the amounts of caffeine you feed your body.

and lured vision. impaired concentration. flu like symptoms.WHAT ARE THE WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS OF CAFFEINE? • The manifestations of caffeine withdrawal are relatively mild. The withdrawal symptoms can be lessened by reducing caffeine consumption gradually over a period of several weeks. depression. irritability. they include headache. . anxiety.

tea. nervousness. and chocolate. In high doses. and metabolic effects based on the quantity ingested. insomnia. and tremors. It is present in a variety of forms: medications. and eased flow of thought. the equivalent of 1-3 cups of coffee) may result in feelings of alertness. High doses (250-500 mg) can result in restlessness. cardiovascular. soft drinks.7-trimethylxanthine) is the most widely consumed stimulant drug in the world.3. coffee. physicians and other medical personnel must be aware of caffeine toxicity to . Because caffeine overdoses. are relatively common. decreased fatigue. Caffeine has differing CNS. intentional or unintentional. Average doses of caffeine (85-250 mg.CONCLUSION • Caffeine (1. caffeine can cause a hyperadrenergic syndrome resulting in seizures and cardiovascular instability.

AMBULO .EXERCISE 5 DETERMINATION OF THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF SOME CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS GROUP 1 PHARMACY 4A TOLEDO – SOLAIMAN – SISON – MASBATE – CAMILE – BAHANDE .

OBJECTIVES • Determine the toxic effects of some cardiovascular drugs in the test animals given in large dose. .

OBSERVATIONS OR RESULTS TEST FOR DIURETICS DOSE ADMINISTERED TRIAL Normal Dose 1 CNS: RR: 2 CNS: RR: 1 CNS: RR: 2 CNS: RR: _ mg/mL Toxic Dose _ mg/mL VOLUME OF URINE REMARKS .

OBSERVATIONS OR RESULTS TEST FOR NITRATE IONS TEST SAMPLES OBSERVATI ON REMARKS TEST FOR NITRITE IONS TEST SAMPLES Blood Sample Blood Sample Pickled or Cured Meat Pickled or Cured Meat OBSERVATI ON REMARKS .

QUESTIONS .

Leukomethylene blue then reduces methemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin. or who have lower levels but are symptomatic. . Methylene blue is indicated in patients with methemoglobin levels >20-25%.WHAT ARE THE REACTIONS INVOLVED IN THE TREATMENT OF METHEMOGLOBINEMIA WITH METHYLENE BLUE? EXPLAINE THE REACTIONS • Methylene blue is reduced to leukomethylene blue by erythrocyte methemoglobin reductase in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH).

blood volume reduction. Monitor the ECG until the potassium level is normalized. .WHAT ARE THE CLINICAL FINDINGS IN THE TOXICITY OF FUROSEMIDE AND THE TREATMENT TO BE USED? • The principal signs and symptoms of overdose with Furosemide (Lasix) are dehydration. and correct electrolyte abnormalities. electrolyte imbalance. hypotension. and are extensions of its diuretic action. Treatments are to replace fluid loss with intravenous crystalloid solutions. hypokalemia and hypochloremic alkalosis.

verapamil. flecainide. Some of these drugs are quinidine. digitoxin. and amiodarone. .WHAT ARE THE CLINICAL IN THE TOXICITY OF FUROSEMIDE AND THE TREATMENT TO BE USED? • You are more likely to have this condition if you take digoxin. or other digitalis medicines along with drugs that interact with it.

such as paraquat poisonings. is inhaled. such as those of the mouth or nose. are suicidal in nature. or comes in contact with the skin. Prevention efforts need to incorporate the fact that many serious cases. Poisonings with agricultural and horticultural chemicals are an important public health problem.CONCLUSION • Poisoning is the harmful effect that occurs when a toxic substance is swallowed. eyes. or mucous membranes. .