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LECTURE-04

MILLING & RELATED OPERATIONS

NIKHIL R. DHAR, Ph. D.
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION
ENGINEERING
BUET

Introduction
Milling machine is one of the most versatile conventional machine tools
with a wide range of metal cutting capability. Many complicated operations
such as indexing, gang milling, and straddle milling etc. can be carried out
on a milling machine. The following figure shows some milling products.

Typical parts and shapes produced by Various Milling processes
Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

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Milling Machines Milling machines are among the most versatile and useful machine tools due to their capabilities to perform a variety of operations. Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/3 . column and knee type milling machines are the most common milling machines. They can be broadly classified into the following types: Column and Knee type milling machines: Used for general purpose milling operations. The spindle to which the milling cutter is may be   Horizontal Milling Machine Vertical Milling Machine.

Knee: The knee mounted in front of the column is for supporting the table and to provide an up or down motion along the Z axis. the gearbox. the shafts.Horizontal Milling Machine Column: The column houses the spindle. Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/4 . the clutches. the pumps. the bearings. and the shifting mechanisms for transmitting power from the electric motor to the spindle at a selected speed.

one on the top and one at the bottom located at 90º to each other.Horizontal Milling Machine Saddle: The saddle consists of two slideways. the thread end of an arbor is of left hand helix. On top of the table are some T-slots for the mounting of workpiece or clamping fixtures. Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/5 . for providing motions in the X or Y axes by means of lead screws. Usually. Table: The table is mounted on top of the saddle and can be moved along the X axis. Arbor: The arbor is an extension of the spindle for mounting cutters.

the gearbox. the pumps. the clutches. Knee: The knee mounted in front of the column is for supporting the table and to provide an up or down motion along the Z axis. the bearings. for providing motions in the X or Y axes by means of lead screws. the shafts. one on the top and one at the bottom located at 90º to each other. and the shifting mechanisms for transmitting power from the electric motor to the spindle at a selected speed.Vertical Milling Machine Column: The column houses the spindle. Saddle: The saddle consists of two slideways. Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/6 .

Ram Milling head: The milling head consisting the spindle.Vertical Milling Machine Table: The table is mounted on top of the saddle and can be moved along the X axis. Ram: The ram on which the milling head is attached can be positioned forward and backward along the slideways on the top of the column. and the feed control unit is mounted on a swivel base such that it can be set at any angle to the table. On top of the table are some T-slots for the mounting of workpiece or clamping fixtures. Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/7 . the motor.

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/8 . boring and tapping with repetitive accuracy. and can move only longitudinally. They are used in the automotive and aerospace industries for machining complex parts and dies. Tracer Controlled Milling Machines: Tracer controlled machines reproduce parts from a master model. the work table is mounted directly on the bed. drilling. These machine tools are versatile and are capable of milling.Bed type Milling Machines: In bed type machines. which replaces the knee. These machines have high stiffness and are used for high production work. Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Milling Machines: Various milling machine components are being replaced rapidly with computer numerical control (CNC) machines. Rotary Table Milling Machines: Rotary table machines are similar to vertical milling machines and are equipped with one or more heads to do face milling operations. Planer Milling Machines: Planer machines are similar to bed type machines but are equipped with several cutters and heads to mill various surfaces.

Down Milling: In down cut milling.Milling Methods Up Milling: In up cut milling. the Up Cut Milling cutter rotates in the same direction as the table feed as illustrated in the following Figure. Down Cut Milling Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/9 . This method is also known as Climb Milling and can only be used on machines equipped with a backlash eliminator or on a CNC milling machine. It is conventionally used in most milling operations because the backlash between the lead screw and the nut of the machine table can be eliminated. This method. will require less power in feeding the table and give a better surface finish on the workpiece. the cutter rotates in a direction opposite to the table feed as illustrated in the following Figure. when properly treated.

Milling Operations Milling operations are classified into two major categories Peripheral Milling   Generally in a plane parallel to the axis of the cutter Cross section of the milled surface corresponds to the contour of the cutter Face Milling    Peripheral Milling Generally at right angles to the axis of rotation of the cutter Milled surface is flat and has no relationship to the contour of the cutter Combined cutting action of the side and face of the milling cutter Face Milling Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/10 .

Peripheral Milling Slab milling: A milling operation that uses a cylindrical mill on an axis parallel to the worktable to create a flat surface. Slotting Slitting Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/11 . Slitting: A rotary tool-steel cutting tool with peripheral teeth. used in a milling machine to remove material from the workpiece through the relative motion of workpiece and cutter. Slab milling Slotting: A milling operation that cuts a narrow ridge into the surface of a workpiece.

Side milling: Milling with a side-milling cutter to machine one vertical surface. Straddle milling Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/12 . Side milling Form milling Straddle milling: Face milling of two parallel vertical surfaces of a workpiece simultaneously by using two side-milling cutters. Form milling: A milling operation that uses a mill with a unique shape to create that shape into the workpiece.

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/13 . End milling: The cutter diameter is less than the work width. Partial face milling: The cutter overhangs the work on only one side. so that the cutter overhangs the work on both sides.Face Milling Conventional milling: The diameter of the cutter is greater than the workpart width. so a slot is cut into the part.

Surface contouring: A ball-nose cutter (rather than square end cutter) is fed back and forth across the work along a curvilinear path at close intervals to create a three-dimensional surface form. Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/14 . Pocket milling: Another form of end milling. Profile milling: This is form of end milling in which the outside periphery of a flat part is cut. this is used to mill shallow pockets into flat parts.

and the hub size of the cutter. Hub size: ø 25 Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/15 . the width. Slitting saw Note: Horizontal milling cutters are specified by the name. For example: Side and face cutter. High Speed Steel.Cutting Tools for Horizontal Milling Slab Mills: For heavy cutting of large and flat surfaces. the material. Slab mill Side and Face Cutters: This type of cutters has cutting edges on the periphery and sides of the teeth for cutting shoulders and slots. the diameter. Cutter size : 10 X ø 100. Side and face cutter Slitting Saws: For cutting deep slots or for parting off .

Milling Cutter Types Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/16 .

the types of shank and the shank diameter. the length. For face milling cutter. Slot drill Note: Most vertical milling cutters are of end mill types and are specified by the material.Cutting Tools for Vertical Milling Rough Cut End Mills: For rapid metal removal. the helical angle. the diameter. slotting and profile milling. Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/17 . only the diameter of the cutter and the types of carbide inserts are required. Face milling cutter Slot Drills: For producing pockets without drilling a hole before hand. End mill Face Milling Cutters: For heavy cutting. Rough cut end mill End Mills: Commonly used for facing.

the table feed. Cutting action is carried out by feeding the workpiece against the rotating cutter.P. and the rotating direction of the cutter become the main parameters of the process. the spindle speed. Good results can only be achieved with a well balanced settings of these parameters. (as shown in Table-1 ) D = Diameter of cutter in mm Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/18 . N  D N D d f Milling Process Where N = R. the depth of cut. of the cutter V = Linear cutting speed of the material in m/min. 1000 V Spindle Speed.Milling Processes Milling is a metal removal process by means of using a rotating cutter having one or more cutting teeth.M. Thus.

d .Table Feed Rate.N .P. of teeth of cutter and N = R. of the cutter w = Width of cut d = Depth of cut Table-1: Tool Material Material Mild Steel Aluminium Hardened Steel Cutting speed and Feed rate for some common material High Speed Steel Cutting speed (v) 25 100 --- Feed (f) 0.15 0.1 19/19 .3 0. f  f t .f Where.15 --- Department of Industrial & Production Engineering Carbide Cutting speed (v) 100 500 50 Feed (f) 0.n Material Removal Rate (MRR)  w.M. f = Table feed in mm/min ft = Movement per tooth of cutter in mm or chip load in mm/tooth (as shown in Table-1 ) n = No.08 0.

and jigs & fixtures. Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/20 .Industrial Applications Milling machines are widely used in the tool and die making industry and are commonly used in the manufacturing industry for the production of a wide range of components. When equipped with digital readout. indexing. gear cutting. as well as the cutting of slots and key-ways. the machine is capable of producing more precise work for the manufacturing of plastic moulds. Typical examples are the milling of flat surface. tool & dies.

consider the following issues:  Spindle orientation and rpm  Machine capability (accuracy and precision)  Machine capacity (size of workpieces)  Horsepower available at spindle (usually 70% of machine horsepower)  Automatic tool changing Department of Industrial & Production Engineering 19/21 .Milling Machine Selection When purchasing or using a milling machine.

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