You are on page 1of 17

DESIGN FOR

DISASSEMBLY AND
RECYCLING

which ends in DEMOLITION and DISPOSAL. This suggests a different life cycle model.Designing for Disassembly to extend service life and increase sustainability The DOMINANT life cycle model of building materials and components is a LINEAR SYSTEM. one that accommodates an increase in service life. If however. Such a set . more materials and components can be REUSED and RECYCLED. To achieve extended service life designers must design buildings for disassembly to facilitate the new steps in the life cycle and encourage the reuse and recycling of materials and components. the act of demolition is REPLACED with the ACT OF DISASSEMBLY.

where an . Similarly the model of the life cycle of materials is treated as a once through system passing from raw materials extraction.Existing model A life cycle assessment of a building involves making an environmental assessment of all of the impacts that the project has at each of the stages of the building’s life cycle. operation and maintenance. operation. and finally to demolition. The commonly used model of life cycle assessment for materials and energy is based on a linear model of the building over time. and finally to demolition. construction. refurbishment. This life cycle model is often referred to as a ‘cradle to grave’ model. through materials processing. through design. assembly and construction. This linear model of the building’s life treats the project as a once through system in which the building progresses through a number of stages from inception.

Existing model FLOWCHAR T SHOWING THE PROCESSES INVOLVED IN THE EXISTING LIFE CYCLE OF MATERIALS AND COMPONEN TS .

Existing model LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT MATRIX BASED ON DOMINANT LIFE PATTERN OF MATERIALS. SHOWING AREAS OF PROBABLE MAJOR NEGATIVE IMPACT .

This design process includes developing the assemblies components materials construction techniques and information and management systems to accomplish this goal. components and materials. remanufacture and recycling. This is to maximize economic value and minimize environmental impact through subsequent reuse. . repair.An Alternative Path …… Disassemble | Reuse | Recylce | WinWin What is DfD? DfD is the design of building to facilitate future change and eventual dismantling (in part or whole) for recovery of systems.

If we add an alternative act of disassembly. and reduce . If we recognise the potential for a true cycle of life. it is not the only model of life cycle. recycled and reconfigured. a new model of a closed-circuit cyclical system can be created. It is a very limiting one for building materials and components. Indeed many materials may never actually reach the grave. Any assessment of the environmental impacts of a building material or component must take into consideration this notion that a material or component may pass through certain stages more than once. This new model incorporates a number of more environmentally attractive options that should reduce the quantity of waste and pollution generation.Alternate Solution Model While this scenario of construction and demolition sees materials being used in a cradle to grave method. Materials and components can be reused. it is possible to divert the flow of materials from disposal and save the energy embodied in them by avoiding the strategy of demolition and disposal. remanufactured.

Examples can be seen in Ancient and Primitive design of buildings in History DfD was integral to the native American Tipi which the tribes assembled and disassembled to accommodate their migratory patterns.DfD DfD is not a new concept or technology. the mild climate. The epitome of this tradition is found at the Ise Shrine where the inner . In Traditional Japenese culture the presence of timber. earth quake prone geography combined to create craft intensive architecture based on wood joinery that is highly dis-assemble-abled.

LIFE CYCLE OF MATERIALS AND COMPONEN TS FOR IMPROVED SUSTAINABI LITY .

DfD Analysis | Benefits | LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMEN T MATRIX BASED ON DISASSEMB LYMODEL OF LIFE PATTERN OF MATERIALS. SHOWING AREAS OF PROBABLE MAJOR NEGATIVE IMPACT .

electrical and plumbing (MEP) systems  Design to the worker and labor of separation  Simplicity of structure and form  Interchangeability  Safe deconstruction .DfD      Key Principles Document materials and methods for deconstruction Select materials using the precautionary principle Design connections that are accessible Minimise or eliminate chemical connections Use bolted. screwed and nailed connections  Separate mechanical.

between Materials DfD Choosing | .

etc.) are readily removed and properly handled .DfD | Where do we fit as designers? Profit from scale of recycled materials  Design so that disassembly costs are minimized (by fast disassembly)  Specify material combinations that can be readily separated  Design so that hazardous components (circuit boards. batteries.

• Applications : Residential uses in remote or ecologically sensitive locations. prefabricated house that can easily be shipped and quickly erected. bath. AUTOMATED DISASSEMBLY . as ecotourism resort units. and all elements necessary to comfortably support four adults. construction.zeroHouse (Disassembly and Re-Use) • zeroHouse is completely selfsufficient and incredibly comfortable. or as living or SOLAR POWER office modules for remote employment RAIN WATER COLLECTION such as mining. or relief WASTE DIGESTOR agency uses. • It features a full kitchen. • The zeroHouse is a small.

• The design compliments the orthogonal lines and hard materials of the existing buildings and the urban park surrounding them. • The pavilion also acknowledges and creates a playful dialogue with the many large-scale modern sculptures inhabiting the museum grounds. • The lightweight translucent envelope and organic lines define a transient space between the park’s outdoors and the museum itself. welcoming and orienting visitors in their exploration of the extensive art collections.Inflatable Event Space • It is designed to easily dismantle and reused in any space. INTERIOR .

  PALLET DESK .Reclaimed Wood (Re-Use) • Using reclaimed wood saves materials and cost. adding warmth and character to your home. repurpose and up-cycle wood. • History and charm oozes out of projects that reuse.

While the guidelines presented here are in no way a complete list. there are however also considerable environmental benefits. there are some important examples of buildings where there is a developed understanding of the principles of design for disassembly to improve reuse and recycling. While the problems of disassembly have not been extensively investigated in the building industry. it is hoped that this . These include:  a reduction in the energy used to process and manufacture the materials  a reduction in the depletion of natural resources  a reduction in the volumes of waste going to landfills and incineration  a reduction in pollutants entering the environment  an extension of service life to reduce embodied energy impact Where the process of disassembly has been successfully incorporated into the life cycle of some products. This is generally performed for its economic savings.CONCLUSION A more appropriate model recognises the act of disassembly as a strategic part of the life cycle that can help to achieve improved economic and environmental performance. the life cycle becomes a closed-circuit system in which the materials or components may pass through the system repeatedly. showing how it can extend service life and thereby improve sustainability. A life cycle assessment model that incorporates the stages of a disassembly strategy can highlight the environmental advantages of designing for disassembly.