Introduction

 Image fusion ± a technique that integrates complementary
information from multiple image sensor data such that the new image are more suitable for processing tasks.  The fusion of images is often required for images acquired from different instrument modalities or capture techniques of the same scene or objects.  Image fusion is the process by which two or more images are combined into a single image retaining the important features from each of the original images.

FUSION METHODS 

     

Linear superposition Nonlinear methods Optimization approaches Artificial neural networks Image pyramids Wavelet transform Generic multiresolution fusion scheme

DECISION RULE BASED IMAGE FUSION USING WAVELET TRANSFORM 
   In recent years, many solutions to image fusion have been proposed. This paper presents an effective multi-resolution image fusion methodology, which is wavelet based image fusion. Fusion process is applied in the clinical case: the study of some particular disease by MR/SPECT fusion. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated via results comparison with several other image fusion methods.

Literature survey 
The technique that was used before was called multi
resolution analysis
Existing System

Existing System 
Fusion framework in feature-level.  Effective multi-sensor image data fusion methodology on the basis of discrete wavelet transform theory  Self-Organizing Neural Network.

Proposed System 
Fusion framework in Decision level Using discrete wavelet transform method Fuzzy logic Neural Networks

Wavelet Transform 
What is wavelet Transform:
Wavelet Transform is a type of signal representation that can give the frequency content of the signal at a particular instant of time.

Wavelet Transform 
Why need wavelet transform? 

Wavelet analysis has advantages over traditional Fourier methods in analyzing physical situations where the signal contains discontinuities and sharp spikes.

1D Discrete Wavelet Transform

2D Discrete Wavelet Transform

New Approach 
Discrete wavelet transform can offer a more
precise way for image analysis.It decomposes a image into low frequency band and high frequency band in different levels, and it can also be reconstructed at these levels.  When images are merged in this method different frequencies are processed differently.  Improves the quality of the new image since it works on Feature extraction.  The fusion algorithm is performed at the pixel level.

DWT Sub-band Structure
Horizontal(Rows) L
Image with resolution Level R

Vertical(Columns) L 2 2 2 2 LL LH HL HH

2 H L

Image corresponding to resolution Level R-1 Detail Image corresponding to information visible at the resolution Level R

NxM
L: Lowpass filter

H

2 H N/2 x M N/2 x M/2

H: Highpass filter 2: downsample by 2

DWT Sub-band Structure
LL: Horizontal Low pass & Vertical Low pass LH: Horizontal Low pass & Vertical High pass

HL: Horizontal High pass & Vertical Low pass

HH: Horizontal High pass & Vertical High pass

DWT Sub-band Structure

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3
DWT with D=3 stages

A DWT Example

LL1 LL0 HL1

LH1 HH1

LL2 HL2

LH2 HH2

LH2 HH2

HL2

Functional Flow Diagram
Input Image A Filtering in the domain of spatial frequency Wavelet decomposition Input Image B Image reconstruction Fusion Rules

Inverse wavelet decomposition

Fusion Decision Map

Fused Image

Functional Flow Diagram 2

Implementation 
Relevant wavelet theory

Since image is 2-D signal, we will mainly focus on the 2-D wavelet transforms. After one level of decomposition, there will be four frequency bands, namely Low-Low (LL), Low-High (LH), High-Low (HL) and HighHigh (HH).

Implementation 
The next level decomposition is just apply to the LL band of the current decomposition stage, which forms a recursive decomposition procedure.  The frequency bands in higher decomposition levels will have smaller size.

GUI - EXISTING TECHNIQUES

GUI ± WAVELET APPROACH

GUI ± FUZZY BASED

GUI ± WAVELET AND FUZZY BASED

Advantages 

No need to divide the input coding into non-overlapping 2-D blocks, it has higher compression ratios avoid blocking artifacts.  Allows good localization both in time and spatial frequency domain.  Transformation of the whole image introduces inherent scaling  Better identification of which data is relevant to human perception higher compression ratio (64:1 vs. 500:1)

Applications 
NAVIGATION AID  MEDICAL IMAGING  REMOTE SENSING  MERGING OUT-OF-FOCUS IMAGES

Applications 
Intelligent robots
‡Require motion control, based on feedback from the environment from visual, tactile, force/torque, and other types of sensors ‡Stereo camera fusion ‡Intelligent viewing control ‡Automatic target recognition and tracking

Applications 
Medical image
‡Fusing X-ray computed topography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images ‡ Computer assisted surgery ‡ Spatial registration of 3-D surface

Applications 
Manufacturing
‡ ‡

‡ ‡ ‡

Electronic circuit and component inspection Product surface measurement and inspection non-destructive material inspection Manufacture process monitoring Complex machine/device diagnostics Intelligent robots on assembly lines

Applications 
Military and law enforcement
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Detection, tracking, identification of ocean (air,ground)target/event Concealed weapon detection Battle-field monitoring Night pilot guidance

References
BASE PAPER :  DAVID L. HALL and JAMES LLINAS, An Introduction to Multisensor Data Fusion, Proceedings of IEEE, 85, 1 (Jan. 1997)  Barbara Zitova, Jan Flusser, Image registration methods: a survey. Image and Vision Computing 21

References
RELATED PAPERS :  L. J. Chipman and T. M. Orr, ³Wavelets and image fusion,´ in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Washington D.C., October 1995, pp. 248± 251 (2003)  L.J. Chipman, T.M. Orr, and L.N. Lewis. Wavelets and image fusion.IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 3:248±251, 1995.  linage fusion techniqcs Sinione.Giovanni and Farina. Alfonso and Morahito. Francesco and Scmico. Sebastiano Bruno and Bruzzone.Lorcnzo (U). Technical Report DIT-02-025, University of Trento.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful