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Hoist Types and Configurations

Dr. B. C. Paul 1999
With Credit to Dr. H. Sevim for Original Book

Major Components of Hoisting


Shaft - a near vertical hole in ground through

which things can be raised and lowered
Head-frame - Steel structure over hole used for
lining up conveyance and directing cables
Conveyance - That container for batch
movement of cargo - name varies with

Support Features for Conveyance

Since Hoist is a batch movement process needs

loading and unloading features
Shaft features a loading pocket for material transfer
quickly to conveyance
Usually a surge bin or ore pass to hold ore and
smooth surges in production with need to keep hoist
running steadily
Headframe usually has dump pocket to side to
quickly catch discharge from conveyance

Rope Handling Features

Conveyance moved by ropes or cables

Headframe has rope handling and aligning
Often have a large Sheath or Wheel at top that
redirects the cable
May be a storage drum for rope to one side or
sometimes at top of headframe
May have hoist house on top of frame

Typical Hoisting System

Two Major Types of Shafts

Inclined Shaft

Not Common today

Steeper than decline
In the wall haulage systems in open pits
May follow vein in small scale metal mine to limit
development to vein

Vertical Shaft
Boring Technologies up to medium sized
Large still need conventional sinking

Uses for Hoisting Systems

Man Cages - Haul men and supply
Utility Hoists - Mostly for supply handling
Emergency Hoists - often in small shaft to
get few people out in emergency
Production Hoists

Will be focus of this unit

Used for removing pay product

Application Hoist Influences

what is raised and lowered

When men and supplies are handled usually

called a cage
some may be multi-level

Production Handling - Called Skips

Skips need way to get material in and out

Skip Configurations

Solid and open at top

need special equipment to dump

Open at top - bottom opens

still need to be unload without dumping load
down the shaft

Side discharge - high production

open off to side of top
side opens for easy discharge to dumping pocket

Types of Hoists

Drum Hoist
rope is stored on drum

Keope Hoist

rope just passes over wheel at top of headframe

must have a balancing load on other side
rope just sits over wheel and is held by friction
obviously some limits on how hard can
accelerate this

Drum Hoist Configurations

Simple Single Drum Hoist

drum with rope wrapped around it

Just lowers the skip to anyplace in range of rope

Inherently out of balance - big load down shaft
when at extension
Out balance makes slow and suitable for only
limited depth
Easily serves multiple levels

Hoist Rope Drive Assemblies


Drum Hoist Configurations

Double Drum Hoist

Two ropes wound in opposite directions
Stick a load on each rope
Creates a balance load - lower something when
pulling something up - less energy and strain - can
hit greater depth

May put a counter weight on one side - can then

go to any level
May put two skips in balance - but now can only
serve one level and expect skips to line up right.

Drum Hoist Arrangements

Double Drum with separated drums - one

Functions like double drum except that now can
shorten one rope to allow multilevel service
Usually wont do unless need to have two in balance

Splitting drum and adding clutch increase inertia

and cost
Runs short distances out of balance

Drum Hoist Types

Double Drum Divided Both Sides Clutched
Adding still more inertia and cost
Can adjust for multi-level hoisting but could
do that with just one drum clutched
Usually done for man hoists - need to be
sure that something will be able to run if it
has to


Weird and Wonderful Drum Tricks

Simple drum is a cylinder

problem is want to start hard - but theres lot of
inertia and tremendous torc

Conical Drum
leverage to spin up to speed
Size can get scary fast

cylinder for starting rope - then flatten out to cone

often creep away from load pocket and then hit it

Keope (or Friction) Hoist

Has to hoist in balance

Control on inertia
No large rope storage drums
No rope wrapped around everything
Generally less costly
Not as Quick as Drum - cant peel out the friction on
the wheel
Sometimes have to put extra tare load to keep the
How in the heck are we going to serve multiple levels?

The Multilevel Problem for

Keope Hoists

If just one level dont care

Can do a skip and counter weight and serve
if your willing to cut your production in half

Can use multiple wheels

each wheel has a skip and counter weight
if two levels can try to skip pairs (not at all

Choosing Between Drum and


Limited depth favors Drum Hoists

Rope Storage is less scarey
Peppy acceleration boosts production

Multi-level favors Drum Hoist (but Keope can

play too)
Greater Depth favors Keope
below about 3,000 feet drums usually cant compete
Keope can do well on very shallow too

Rope Handling Comparisons

Keope Hoist

Often uses several ropes on one skip

The ropes bend in parallel so no differential twisting
Multi-rope helps explain greater service depth
Multi-rope gives more friction surface area

Drum Hoist
has to be single rope to avoid pile-up and differential
ever increasing rope size forces ever large drum to
avoid hard twist on rope

The Mystery of the Tail Rope

Why would I leave a rope hanging down
A shaft?
Wire rope is very heavy and can be a big
Part of the load.


Consider a Keope Hoist

Balanced loads on each side are important to prevent sliding
Over the sheave wheel.
What is out of balance here?
The load in one of the scoops
A big length of rope


Now What is Out of Balance?

The load in one of the skips

Even though drum hoists dont have the slipping issue
The unbalanced load is what the hoist motor has to work
Against unbalance is bad here too.