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• Energy can be converted form one form to another.

• It uses Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.
• Whenever there is change in the magnetic flux
associated with conductor, an EMF is induced in it.

• The direction of induced e.m.f. (and hence current) is given by
Fleming’s right hand rule
• As per Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, whenever a
conductor moves inside a magnetic field, there will be an induced
current in it. If this conductor gets forcefully moved inside the
magnetic field, there will be a relation between the direction of
applied force, magnetic field and the current. This relation among
these three directions is determined by Fleming Right Hand rule

Simple Loop DC Generator

• Consider a single turn loop ABCD rotating clockwise in a uniform
magnetic field with a constant speed as shown in Fig.(1.1). As the
loop rotates, the flux linking the coil sides AB and CD changes
continuously. Hence the e.m.f. induced in these coil sides also
changes but the e.m.f. induced in one coil side adds to that
induced in the other. E.M.F. generated in the loop is alternating
one. It is because any coil side, say AB has e.m.f. in one direction
when under the influence of N-pole and in the other direction
when under the influence of S-pole.


• A DC Generator operates on the principle of dynamically induced emf.
• To convert the alternating bidirectional alternating current into
unidirectional direct current split rings are used.
• Split rings are cut into two half's called segment separated by insulated
sheet mica. The ring segments are also kept insulated from the central
shaft and are connected to the ends of the coil and the carbon brushes.

• The action of split rings is called commutation

Cont…… .

• It carries the magnetic field flux.Construction of DC Generator • Yoke of DC Generator .yoke are made of cast iron – Yoke of DC generator serves two purposes • It holds the magnetic pole cores of the generator and acts as cover of the generator. .

• One: Solid pole care.Cont………. • Pole Cores and Pole Shoes of DC Generator. where it made of a solid single piece of cast iron or cast steel. where it made of numbers of thin. . • The pole core is fixed to the inner periphery of the yoke by means of bolts through the yoke and into the pole body. that. • Two: Laminated pole core. they spread out the magnetic flux in the air gap and reduce the reluctance of the magnetic path.There are mainly two types of construction available. • The pole shoes are so typically shaped. limitations of annealed steel which are riveted together.

Armature winding are generally formed wound. . The conductors are placed in the armature slots. • Armature Core of DC Generator. cylindrical or drum shaped armature core is build up of circular laminated sheet. That is why. which are lined with tough insulating material. Various conductors of the coils are insulated from each other.The purpose of armature core is to hold the armature winding and provide low reluctance path for the flux through the armature from N pole to S pole.Cont…….. • Armature Winding of DC Generator . Although a DC generator provides direct current but induced current in the armature is alternating in nature. These are first wound in the form of flat rectangular coils and are then pulled into their proper shape in a coil puller.

• Bearing of DC Generator . • Commutator of DC Generator .The brushes are made of carbon.The commutator plays a vital role in dc generator.For small machine. • Brushes of DC Generator . These are rectangular block shaped. ball bearing is used and for heavy duty dc generator. It actually takes alternating current from armature and converts it to direct current and then send it to external load. The only function of these carbon brushes of DC generator is to collect current from commutator segments.Cont……. roller bearing is used . It collects current from armature and sends it to the load as direct current.

hence induced emfs in them are additive. – It is equal to the number of armature conductors per pole. Fractional pitched windings uses saving in copper.e the distance between the two adjacent poles. . If there are 48 conductors and 4 poles. • • Pole pitch – The periphery of the armature divide by the number of the poles of the generator i. then winding is fractional pitched. then the winding is called as full pitched. Maximum emf is induced. – If the pole span or coil pitch is equal to the pole pitch. 36 slots and 4 poles. If the number of slots is 35.e coil span is 180 deg. – – – If coil span is less the the pole pitch.Cont……. coil span is 8 necessary to drop the fractions. the coil span is 9 slots. the pole pitch is 48/4 = 12 Coil Span or Coil Pitch (Ys) – It is distance measured in terms of armature slots between two sides of a coil. Ex. i. In this case coil sides lie under opposite poles.

. which a coil advances on the back of the armature is calledd back pitch. Y  YB  YF ..Cont……...... Resultant Pitch (YR) – distance between beginning of one coil and the beginning of next coil to which it is connected.......WaveWindin g .LapWinding Y  YB  YF . • • • Back Pitch (YB) – It is distance measured in terms of armature conductors... Front Pitch (YF) – Number of armature conductors or elements spanned by a coil on front is called front pitch..

Cont……. This results in increased emf round the coils. • Lap & Wave Winding– mostly employed for drum type armatures • The difference between is due to arrangement of the end connections at the front or commutator end of armature • The windings should be full pitched. • Both the pitches should be odd . • The number of commutator segments is equal to the number of the slots or coil because front end of conductors are joined to the segments in pair. • The winding must close itself. If both are even all coil sides and conductor would lie either in upper half of the slots or in lower half. .

d PN  EMF generated/conductor = dt 60 • For Simplex Wave Wound Generator No.e. E. dt = 60/N According to faraday’s law. of parallel paths in armature N = Armature rotation in revolutions per minute (RPM) E = emf induced in any parallel path in armature Generated EMF Eg=emf generated in any one of the parallel paths i. Average emf generated/conductor =dØ/dtVolt Now.M. flux cut/conductor in one revolution dØ= ØP Wb No. of conductors (in series) path = Z/2 PN in Z one ZPN *  EMF generated/path = 60 2 120 . of conductors/slot P = No. of parallel paths =2 No. of Slots* No. of generator poles A = No. of revolution/second = N/60 Time for one revolution.F • Let Ø = flux/pole in weber Z = Total number of armature conductors = No.GENERATED E.

Cont………… • For Simplex Lap Wound Generator No. of parallel paths =P No. of conductors (in series) in one path = Z/P EMF generated/path = PN * Z  ZN 60 P 60  .

The frequency of magnetic reversal is f=PN/120 • The loss depends upon the volume and grade of iron. it also cuts the magnetic flux.IRON LOSS IN ARMATURE • Hysteresis Losses (Wh)– This loss is duce to the reversal of magnetization of the armature core.6 Wh  Bmax fV • Eddy Current Losses (We) – When the armature core rotates. Every portion of the rotating core passes under N & S pole alternately. 2 We  KBmax f 2V 2t 2 . The core undergoes one complete cycle of magnetic reversal after passing under one pair of poles. 1. An EMF is induced in the body of the core according to the laws of electromagnetic induction • This EMF though small sets up a large current in the body of the core due to its small resistance. This current is known as eddy current. thereby attaining S & N Polarity respectively. maximum value of flux density Bmax and frequency of magnetic reversals.


• Total Losses • Copper Loss • Armature Copper Loss – this loss is 30 to 40% of full load losses. • Mechanical Loss – These consist of (i) friction loss at bearings and commutator (ii) air friction or windage loss of rotating armature. Armature copper loss = Ia2Ra • Field Copper Loss – in case of shunt generators Ish2Rsh.Cont……. . Stray loss and cu loss are constant. • Magnetic Loss – also called as iron losses. • Constant & Standing Losses – field cu loss is constant for shunt and compound generators. it is practically constant and in case of series generator it is I se2Rse it is about 20 to 30% full load losses. These losses together known as standing or constant losses. • Stray Losses – Magnetic and mechanical losses are collectively known as stray losses.

POWER STAGES 1. Mechanical Efficiency 2. Electrical Efficiency 3. Overall or Commercial Efficiency m B  A C e  B C c  A .

CONDITION FOR MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY Generator Output = VI Generator Input = output + losses  VI  I 2 a 2   Ra  Wc  VI  I  I sh Ra  Wc output VI VI    2 input VI  I a Ra  Wc VI  I 2 Ra  Wc I a  I Efficiency is maximum when denominator is minimum i.e. when d  IRa Wc     0 dI  V VI  Ra Wc  2 0 V VI I 2 Ra  Wc .

It has two parts one is field and another is armature. The purpose of armature is to carry the required amount of current through its conductor which is necessary for electromagnetic interaction. Then how this magnetic flux produce by armature conductor interacts with field flux. • The effect of armature flux on the main flux or interaction of armature flux with main flux or field flux is called armature reaction. The purpose of field is to provide requisite flux density for machine working.ARMATURE REACTION • Field Flux • Dc machine is doubly excited. Armature reaction evolves. • If we consider that when current passes through armature conductor they also produces their magnetic effect. .

.Cont…… • Armature Flux • The flux produced by armature conductor. the current are carried inside the plane and conductor falling under south pole. lines will be concentric lines and direction can be found using Fleming right hand rule. • The lines of flux around this conductor. The conductors are divided into two halves along GNA if conductor is in left half falling under north pole. the current are carried outward the plane.

.Cont…… • Resultant Flux • In left top corner the flux density is increased because direction of flux produced by armature and flux produced by field is same direction. • Below to flux is opposite in direction.

That is explained in next diagram. But that it is not the case.Cont…… • • • • • Effects on field flux Cross magnetizing – armature flux is adding field flux De magnetizing – opposing field flux The amount of magnetization is same as amount of demagnetization. .


• Armature mmf and armature flux • Armature mmf is number of turns and current through conductors.Cont…… • Flux density is uniform under the pole. Armature conductor in armature periphery. But ion left side of conductor direction of magnetic lines is downward so mmf is increasing in negative direction. When pole tips after that air gap increase that decrease armature flux . After GNA flux density becomes zero. • Armature flux will be armature mmf /reluctance. • Shift of neutral axis. The direction of lines is upward mmf is increasing in positive direction. After the pole tip air gap suddenly increase flux density is decreased . Angle of shift in forward direction in generator and in opposite direction in motor. Under the pole air gap is uniform reluctance is also uniform. Dip in flux. At center of pole no of coils enclosed by flux is minimum or zero therefore armature mmf is minimum. . It is increasing upto GNA because at this lines of forces are enclosing maximum number of conductors. Flux density under both pole will be in opposite direction.

Severe under loaded condition. • It will be not be observed in no load or light load condition because all this are related to armature flux. To maintain same flux need to provide more turns in field winding. .DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF ARMATURE REACTION ON PERFORMANCE OF DC MACHINE • Increased iron loss • Bad commutation – commutation in not sparkless. At GNA because it has shifted from original position rotational EMF will be developed • Increased cost of field winding – armature reaction decrease amount of flux because of demagnetizing effect. Spark is produced between commutator and brushes.

METHODS OF MINIMIZING EFFECTS • For smaller size machine • High reluctance pole tips • Decreasing the armature flux – punched poles air gap increase reluctance • By developing strong magnetic field. .field flux more stronger .

METHODS OF MINIMIZING EFFECTS • For larger size machine • By employing inter poles – interpoles are small capacity located in interpolar area i. . area between two main poles and this small poles provide flux density opposite to armature flux. • By employing compensating winding – winding located on pole faces but they carry current of armature so they produce same effect as armature conductor but in opposite direction.e.


. .Cont….


The first part is straight from bar ‘b’ to the brush and other parallel path is via the short circuited coil B to bar ‘a’ and then to the brush. . • When current I from coil ‘C’ reaches the commutator segment b.METHODS OF IMPROVING COMMUTATION • RESISTANCE COMMUTATION • This method consist of improving commutation consist of replacing low resistance Cu brushes by comparatively high resistance carbon brushes. it has two parallel paths open to it.

• Resistance r2 of second path will decrease due to rapidly increasing contact area of bar ‘a’ with the brush. • But when carbon brushes having high resistance is used. . then there is no inducement for the current to follow the second longer path.Cont…… • If the Cu brushes are used. it would follow the first path. then current I coming from C will prefer to pass through the second path because : • The resistance r1 of the first path will increase due to diminishing area of contact of the bar ‘b’ with the brush.

• The reversing emf may be produced in two ways (i) either by giving brushes a forward lead sufficient enough to bring the short circuited coil under the influence of next pole of opposite e polarity or (ii) by using interpoles . • E.Cont……. thereby producing quick reversal of current in the short circuited coil which will result in sparkless commutation. it will completely wipe off. • The reversing emf is and emf in opposition to reactance voltage and its value is made equal to the latter.M.F COMMUTATION • Arrangement is made to neutralize the reactance voltage by producing a reversing emf in short circuited coil under commutation.

. It is just the magnetization curve for material of the electromagnets. • INTERNAL OR TOTAL CHARACTERISTIC (E/Ia) – It gives the relation between the emf actually induces in the armature and the armature current • EXTERNAL CHARACTERISITC (V/I) – It is also referred as performance characteristic or sometimes voltage regulating curve. It gives relation between the terminal voltage V and the load current I. it lies below the internal characteristic because it takes into account the voltage drop over the armature circuit resistance.CHARACTERISITC OF DC GENERATORS • NO LOAD SATURATION CURVE (E0/If) – It is known as magnetic characteristic or open circuit characteristic.


so greater increase in If is required to produce a given increase in voltage than on the lower part of curve. • But as flux density increase the poles becomes saturated.e Od. the flux & Eg increases directly as current so long as the poles are unsaturated. i. .OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTIC • NO LOAD SATURATION CURVE (E0/If) – The exciting or field current If is obtained from an external independent DC src. It can be varied from 0 upwards by potentiometer and current is by ammeter ZNP connected. E g  60 A • When If is increased from initial small value.

the voltage will decrease due to demagnetizing effect of armature reaction. • In order to generate the same emf on load as at no load. the field amp turns/pole must be increase by ac=bd . • Under load conditions. • At no load the field amp turns required for no load voltage are given by Oa. This decrease can be made up suitably increasing field amp turns.LOAD SATURATION CURVE • LOAD SATURATION CURVE (V/If) – Demagnetizing effect of armature reaction and the voltage drop in armature . ac represents equivalent demagnetizing amp-turns per pole.

Load saturation curve for half load can be obtained by joining the mid points of such lines as mn and bd etc. From point d. a vertical line de=IaRa. • The right angle triangle bde is known as drop reaction triangle. • The point lies e on full load saturation curve for generator. • The point d lies on the curve LS which shows relation between E under load condition and field amp turns.Cont……. LS is parallel to Ob. Mp is full load saturation curve. . • Terminal voltage V will be less than E by amount armature drop.

Curve III.INTERNAL & EXTERNAL CHARACTERISTIC • If there were no armature reaction and armature voltage drop. If we subtract E from IaRa we get V. • The straight line Oa represent the IaRa drop. known as internal characteristic. then we get values of E the emf actually inducted in the armature under load conditions curve II. . known as external characteristic. by dotted horizontal line I • If we subtract from E0 the values of voltage drops due to armature reaction for different loads. then this voltage would have remain constant.


• Due to residual magnetism in the poles. . • After pt B.OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTIC • If is increased by suitable steps and the corresponding values of E0 are measured. reluctance of iron path being negligible. • The first part is of curve is practically straight due to low flux density. • The flux and consequently. saturation of poles starts. the generated emf is directly proportional to the exciting current. some emf (OA) is generated even when If=0.

current ob flows in field winding. • If switch K is closed.VOLTAGE BUILD UP IN SHUNT GENERATOR • OCC is shown in fig. This current increases the flux produced by the poles and voltage generated in the armature is increased to oc which further increase in the field current to od which further builds up the voltage. When armature is rotated at constant speed ω rad/sec. the small residual flux of the poles is cut by armature conductors and very small emf (oa) is induced in armature. This building action comes to end at pt f where OCC intersects shunt field OA . the shunt field resistance is represented by OA.

This will increase pole flux and increase generated emf. some emf & hence current through field coil will strengthen the magnetism of the poles. OB represents smaller resistance and the corresponding voltage OM greater than OL. • The point lies on the resistance line OA of the field winding.CRITICAL RESISTANCE FOR SHUNT GENERATOR • Due to residual magnetism in the poles. The voltage OL corresponding to P represents maximum voltage to which the machine will build up with R. .

• If R is increased so much that the resistance line does not cut the OCC the machine will fail to excite. the machine will just excite. & maximum voltage to which generator will build up at given speed decreases. • The value of resistance represented by tangent to the curve. is known as critical resistance Rc for a given speed. then the slope of resistance line increased.Cont…… • If field resistance is increased. . then with that value of field resistance. • If the resistance line just lies along the slope.

• Armature resistance drop • Armature reaction drop • Drop in terminal voltage V due to above two reasons. • As the load is increased gradually. These are three main reason for the drop in terminal voltage of shunt generator under load. then its terminal voltage V drops with increase in load current. IL increases but terminal voltage decreases . Such a drop in voltage is undesirable especially when the generator is supplying current for light and power for which purpose it is desirable that V should remain practically constant and independent of the load. .EXTERNAL CHARACTERISTIC • Shunt generator is loaded.

• A1 is kept constant by rheostat. this result in comparatively small additional drop in voltage. Load is gradually applied and at suitable intervals. the terminal voltage V and load current I are noted. load current is increased. • If load is decreased. . The portion ab is working part of this curve.Cont…… • The shunt generator is first excited on no load so that it gives full open circuit voltage=Oa.

generator is delivering a very large current i..e. . • But due to the severe armature reaction for this heavy current and increased IaRa drop. • Beyond this pt (where load is maximum OB) any effort to increase load current by further decreasing load resistance result in decreased load current due to very rapid decrease in terminal voltage.Cont……. The effect of this drastic reduction results in less load current (OA). V decreases more rapidly. • At pt B. the current is increased momentarily. • Over portion bdc. • This condition holds good till pt B is reached. V is drastically reduced. current which is many times greater than its normal current. This point is known as breakdown pt. If load resistance is decreased at this pt so as to be able to draw a load current greater than OB.

If we add these drops to coordinate of curve ac we get internal . ab represents external characteristic.INTERNAL CHARACTERISTIC • In fig. • For any armature current OK armature voltage drop Km. Distance between OY & OB gives value of field current for different terminal voltages. Pt d is obtained by making gd=ef. • If we add these distances horizontally to the external characteristic ab. The field resistance line is OB. we get total armature.

then the generator is short circuited and there is no generated emf due to heavy demagnetization of main poles. the armature current increases up to a certain load current value. after that any further decrease in load resistance do not increase in load current . . • If load resistance is decreased. t lies on internal characteristic. St=Km. If the load resistance is too small.Cont…… • For ex. • Line OP is tangential to internal characteristic MB and its slope gives the value of minimum resistance with which generator will excite if excited on load. • Rather it turns back and the curve turns back.


As Ia is increased flux & Eg is increased . Pt b is on internal characteristic.Cont…… • In this generator field wdg is in series with armature they carry full armature current Ia. pt c lies on external characteristic. If ordinate bc=gh=armature voltage drop. • The extra current required to neutralize the weakening effect of armature reaction at full load is given by horizontal distance ab. Curve Oa. .

• At high loads. . the voltage starts decreasing due to excessive demagnetizing effects of armature reaction. terminal voltage is reduced to zero.e with increase in load. • Terminal voltage start decreasing as load current is increased as shown by dotted curve. its voltage is also increased.Cont…… • Series generator has rising voltage characteristic i. For load current OC’.


. This extra induced emf compensates the voltage drop in the armature resistance and the demagnetizing effect due to armature reaction.Cont…… • In such generator when load current increase. • When terminal voltage on full load is less than no load voltage the generator is called as compounded generator. • A cumulatively compound wound generator is shown in fig. • When the terminal voltage on full load is more than its terminal voltage at no load the generator is called to be an over compounded generator. flux increases which increases the induced emf. its level of compounding can be changed by varying the amount of current passing through the series field winding by connecting Rh. the generator is called to be flat compounded generator. • When the field current is adjusted such that the terminal voltage V on full load remains the same as that on no load.

Cont…… • If the field produce by the series field winding acts in opposite direction to the field produced by shunt field winding. the generator is called to be differentially compounded. .