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Wireless network consisting
spatially distributed autonomous
devices using sensors to monitor
physical or environmental conditions.
A WSN system incorporates a
gateway that provides wireless
connectivity back to the wired world
and distributed nodes.
The wireless protocol you select
depends on your application
Some of the available standards
include 2.4 GHz radios based on
either IEEE 802.15.4 or IEEE 802.11
(Wi-Fi) standards or proprietary
radios, which are usually 900 MHz.

BACKGROUND DETAILS OF WSN WSN’s have existed for decades and used for applications as diverse as earthquake measurements to warfare.  The equivalent term in the NASA Sensor Webs Project for a physical sensor node is pod.  The modern development of small sensor nodes dates back to the 1998 Smartdust project and the NASA Sensor Webs Project. They include major research centres in Berkeley NEST and CENS. The chip footprint contains more complex and lower powered microcontrollers.  Physical sensor nodes have been able to increase their capability in conjunction with Moore’s Law.  . although the sensor node in a Sensor Web can be another Sensor Web itself.  One of the objectives of the Smartdust project was to create autonomous sensing and communication within a cubic millimetre of space.  The researchers involved in these projects coined the term mote  to refer to a sensor node.

THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF WSN         Power consumption constraints for nodes using batteries or energy harvesting Ability to cope with node failures (resilience) Mobility of nodes Heterogeneity of nodes Scalability to large scale of deployment Ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions Ease of use Cross-Layer Design .

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK ARCHITECTURE   Wireless technology offers several advantages for those who can build wired and wireless systems and take advantage of the best technology for the application. . To do this. Each wireless network can scale from tens to hundreds of nodes and seamlessly integrate with existing wired measurement and control systems. you need a flexible software architecture.

analyze. . process. Routers are a special type of measurement node that you can use to extend WSN distance and reliability. which can operate independently or connect to a host system where you can collect. and present your measurement data using software. The acquired data wirelessly transmits to the gateway.UNDERSTANDING THE WSN ARCHITECTURE    A wireless sensor network architecture consists of three main components:Nodes Gateways Software The spatially distributed measurement nodes interface with sensors to monitor assets or their environment.

analyze. •Powerful programming capabilities. process. enterprise network. • collects measurement data from distributed nodes. •Long-term outdoor deployment. •acts as network coordinator in charge of node authentication. •Provide graphical development environment. . where you can collect. •Devices are battery-powered.WSN ARCHITECTURE GATEWAYS SOFTWARE NODES •Feature direct sensor connectivity. •Analysis and control applications with professional user interface.

WSN NETWORK TOPOLOGIES    WSN nodes are typically organized in one of three types of network topologies. each node connects directly to a gateway.In a cluster tree network. This mesh link is often referred to as a router. STAR TOPOLOGY :. .Mesh networks feature nodes that can connect to multiple nodes in the system and pass data through the most reliable path available. CLUSTER TREE TOPOLOGY:. MESH TOPOLOGY:. each node connects to a node higher in the tree and then to the gateway. and data is routed from the lowest node on the tree to the gateway.In a star topology.

Common WSN Network Topologies .

RADIO •must efficiently transmit a signal • must make important trade-offs ANALOG CIRCUIT COMPONENTS OF WSN NODE BATTERY MICROCONTROLLER SENSOR INTERFACE •In addition to long life requirements. size and weight must be considered •international standards •ZigBee due to its low-power •reducing power consumption consumption • maintaining or increasing processor speed •power consumption and processing speed trade-off is major .

WSN Sensor Node Components .

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK APPLICATIONS Health Applications Environmental Applications      Forest fire detection Bio-complexity mapping of environment Flood detection Precision Agriculture Air and water pollution •Telemonitoring of human physiological data •Tracking and monitoring doctors and patients inside a hospital •Drug administration in Commercial hospitals Applications •Environmental control in office buildings (estimated energy savings $55 billion per year!) •Interactive museums •Detecting and monitoring car .

g. at a bearing .Automotive Applications     Reduces wiring effects Measurements in chambers and rotating parts Remote technical inspections Conditions monitoring e.

Pictures of applications of wireless sensor networks .

FACTORS INFLUENCING WSN DESIGN     Scalability Hardware constraints Environment Power Consumption ◦ Sensing ◦ Communication ◦ Data processing •Fault tolerance •Production costs •Sensor network topology •Transmission media .

turning them on an off  Sensor query and data dissemination protocol ◦ Provides user applications with interfaces to issue queries and respond to queries ◦ Sensor query and tasking language (SQTL)    Directed diffusion Sensor MAC (S-MAC) IEEE 802.g.15. moving sensor nodes.4 .FEW WSN PROTOCOLS  Sensor management protocol ◦ Provides software operations needed to perform administrative tasks e.

WSN OPERATING SYTEMS   o o  o o o o o o OS for wireless sensor network nodes are typically less complex than general-purpose OS strongly resemble embedded systems. rather than as a general platform need for low costs and low power leads most wireless sensor nodes It is therefore possible to use embedded operating systems such as :TinyOS Contiki MANTIS Btnut SOS Nano-RK . for two reasons wireless sensor networks are typically deployed with a particular application in mind.

TinyOS   Event-driven programming model instead of multithreading TinyOS and its programs written in nesC .

TinyOS CHARACTERISTICS  Small memory footprint ◦ non-preemptable FIFO task scheduling  Power Efficient ◦ Puts microcontroller to sleep ◦ Puts radio to sleep  Concurrency-Intensive Operations ◦ Event-driven architecture ◦ Efficient Interrupts and event handling  No Real-time guarantees .

Sensor Node  Dust Networks  Sensoria Corporation  Ember Corporation  Worldsens Crossbow Sensor .WSN DEVELOPMENT PLATFORMS  Crossbow Worldsens Inc.

WSN SIMULATORS NS-2  GloMoSim  OPNET  SensorSim  J-Sim  OMNeT++  Sidh  SENS  .

FUTURE ASPECTS     WSNs possible today due to technological advancement in various domains Envisioned to become an essential part of our lives Design Constraints need to be satisfied for realization of sensor networks Tremendous research efforts being made in different layers of WSNs protocol stack .