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F=BIL . • It is based on principle that when current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field. it experiences a mechanical force.WORKING PRINCIPLE • Energy can be converted form one form to another.

Cont…… • The direction of mechanical force is given by Fleming’s left hand rule. If the fore finger represents the direction of the field and the second finger that of the current. . then thumb gives the direction of the force. • It is found that whenever an current carrying conductor is placed inside a magnetic field. in a direction perpendicular to both the directions of the current and the magnetic field. a force acts on the conductor.

BACK EMF • When the armature winding of dc motor is start rotating in the magnetic flux produced by the field winding. it cuts the lines of magnetic flux and induces the emf in the armature winding. ). it is always in such a direction that the current it would produce would oppose the change which causes the induced emf. this induced emf acts in the opposite direction to the armature supply voltage. ZNP Eb  60 A . Hence this emf is called as back emfs. • According to Lenz’s law (The law that whenever there is an induced electromotive force (emf) in a conductor.

VOLTAGE EQUATION • The voltage applied across the motor armature has to – Overcome the back emf Eb & – Supply the armature ohmic drop IaRa V  Eb  I a Ra • Multiply both sides by Ia VI a  Eb I a  I a2 Ra • VIa= Electrical Input to armature • EbIa= Electrical equivalent of mechanical power developed in the Armature .

CONDITION FOR MAXIMUM POWER • The gross mechanical power developed by motor is Pm  VI a  I a2 Ra • Differentiating both the sides wrt Ia and equating the result to zero dPm  V  2 I a Ra  0 dI a  I a Ra  V 2 V  Eb  I a Ra I a Ra  V 2  Eb  V 2 .

• Consider a pulley of radius r metre acted upon by a circumferential force of F newton which causes it to rotate at N RPM. • Torque T=F * r • Work done by this force in one revolution = Force X Distance = F * 2Πr • Power developed = F * 2Πr * N = (F * r) * 2ΠN =T*ω .TORQUE • The term torque is meant the turning or twisting moment of a force about an axis. It is measured by the product of the force and radius at which this force acts.

159 A Ta  I a .ARMATURE TORQUE • Power developed = Ta * 2ΠN • Electrical Power Converted into Mechanical Power = EbIa Ta * 2ΠN= EbIa ZNP Eb  A ZI a P Ta  0.

• The torque which is available for doing useful work is known as shaft torque. .55 2 N 2 N 2 N N 60 • The difference (Ta-Tsh) is known as lost torque and is due to iron & friction losses of the motor. Output  Tsh * 2  N Output Output 60 * Output Output Tsh     9.SHAFT TORQUE • The whole of armature torque is not available for doing useful work. because a certain percentage of it is required for supplying iron and friction losses in the motor.