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• The atoms
held together
by sharing
electrons are
joined by a
Covalent
Bond.

2. Covalent bonds-

Two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell

electrons.

Oxygen Atom

Oxygen Atom

Oxygen Molecule (O2)

Molecules and Molecular
Compounds
• Molecule is a neutral
group of atoms joined
together by covalent
bonds.
• Diatomic molecule is a
molecule consisting of
two atoms.
• A compound composed
of molecules is called a
molecular compound.

. – Most are formed from atoms of two or more nonmetals. – Many are gases or liquids at room temperature.Properties • Molecular compounds tend to have relatively lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds.

Molecular Formulas • A molecular formula is the chemical formula of a molecular compound. • CO2 Carbon Dioxide • 1 Carbon Atom • 2 Oxygen Atoms . • It shows how many atoms of each element a molecule contains.

• Ionic Vs. Covalent Bond .

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles

Bonding

Covalent bonding

So
what
are
covalent
bonds?

In covalent bonding,
atoms still want to achieve
a noble gas configuration
(the octet rule).

atoms now share an electron pair.In covalent bonding. . atoms still want to achieve a noble gas configuration (the octet rule). But rather than losing or gaining electrons.

atoms now share an electron pair.In covalent bonding. But rather than losing or gaining electrons. The shared electron pair is called a bonding pair . atoms still want to achieve a noble gas configuration (the octet rule).

Chlorine forms a covalent bond with itself Cl2 .

Cl Cl How will two chlorine atoms react? .

Cl Cl Each chlorine atom wants to gain one electron to achieve an octet .

What’s the solution – what can they do to achieve an octet? .Cl Cl Neither atom will give up an electron – chlorine is highly electronegative.

What’s the solution – what can they do to achieve an octet? .Cl Cl Neither atom will give up an electron – chlorine is highly electronegative.

Cl Cl octet .

Cl Cl octet circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets .

Cl Cl The octet is achieved by each atom sharing the electron pair in the middle circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets .

Cl Cl The octet is achieved by each atom sharing the electron pair in the middle circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets .

Cl Cl This is the bonding pair circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets .

Cl Cl It is a single bonding pair circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets .

Cl Cl It is called a SINGLE BOND circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets .

Cl Cl Single bonds are abbreviated with a dash circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets .

Cl2 circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets .Cl Cl This is the chlorine molecule.

O2 Oxygen is also one of the diatomic molecules .

O O How will two oxygen atoms bond? .

O O Each atom has two unpaired electrons .

O O .

O O .

O O Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative. . So both atoms want to gain two electrons.

.O O Both electron pairs are shared.

O O 6 valence electrons plus 2 shared electrons = full octet .

O O 6 valence electrons plus 2 shared electrons = full octet .

O O two bonding pairs. making a double bond .

. the double bond can be shown as two dashes.O O O =O For convenience.

O =O This is the oxygen molecule. O2 this is so cool! ! .

Multiple Covalent bonds Need to share Another pair of electrons O O Only 7 electrons does Not meet Octet Rule! Sharing One Pair of electrons One Covalent Bond O O Sharing Two Pairs of electrons Two Covalent Bonds A Double Bond O O A Double Bond can be represented by a double line .

Nitrogen Multiple Covalent bonds N N Sharing Three Pairs of electrons Three Covalent Bonds A Triple Bond N N A Triple Bond can be represented by a Triple line .

Coordinate Covalent Bond • both electrons contributed by one atom of pair NH3 + H+ -----> NH4+ H2O + H+ -----> H3O+ .

Coordinate Covalent Bond ammonium ion .

3. Predict the location of the atoms a. Hydrogen is a terminal atom b. 5. Draw a single covalent bond between the central atom and the surrounding atoms. 6. If the central atom does not have a complete octet then try double or triple bonds. 2. Subtract the number of electrons in the single covalent bonds from the total number of electrons in 2.Drawing Lewis Dot Structures 1. . 4. Use the remaining electrons to complete the octets of each atom. The central atom has the smallest electronegativity. Count the valence electrons.

Drawing Lewis Dot Structures Draw Lewis Dot Structures for: PH3 H2S HCl CCl4 SiH4 CH2Cl2 .

Bond Dissociation Energies • The energy required to break the bond between two covalently bonded atoms. .

the stronger it is H – H single bond.Relate the strength of covalent bonds to bond length • The more bonds located between 2 atoms. not too strong O=O double bonds. the shorter the bonds are • The shorter a bond is. stronger NΞN triple bonds. strongest .

bonds are broken.Endothermic/Exothermic In chemical reactions. then new bonds are formed Endothermic – More energy is required to break the old bonds than is released by the formation of new bonds • Energy is taken in (colder) Exothermic – More energy is released when forming new bonds than is used to break the old bonds • Energy is given off (hotter) .

Exceptions to Octet Rule NO2 nitrogen dioxide resonance .

Exceptions to Octet Rule PF5 expanded octet .

Exceptions to Octet Rule SF6 Expanded octet .

what we call the molecular geometry or molecular structure. They do not show the arrangement space of the atoms. B) Molecules have definite shapes and the shape of a molecule controls some of its chemical and physical properties. .INTRODUCTION A) Lewis structures do not indicate the three dimensional shape of a molecule.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory . A) Assumptions of VSEPR Theory 1) Electron pairs in the valence shell of an atom tend to orient themselves so that the total energy is minimized.VSEPR .predicts the shapes of a number of molecules and polyatomic ions.II. This means that: the electrons will approach the nucleus as close as possible yet take positions as far away from each other as possible to minimize _______________ . .

and weakest between two bonding pairs of electrons. B) What are the ideal arrangements of electron pairs to minimize repulsions? . intermediate between a lone pair and a bond pair.2) Because lone pairs of electrons are spread out more broadly than bond pairs. 3) Repulsive forces decrease rapidly with increasing interpair angle . repulsions are greatest between two lone pairs. and very weak at 180o. much weaker at 120o.greatest at 90 o.

.Bond Formation A bond can result from an overlap of atomic orbitals on neighboring atoms. H •• + Cl • • •• •• H Cl • • •• Overlap of H (1s) and Cl (2p) Note that each atom has a single. unpaired electron.

and S C2F4 O O •• •• •• •• H2CO SO3 C C O O •• •• •• •• .Double and even triple bonds are commonly observed for C. P. N. O.

Some Common Geometries Linear Trigonal Planar Tetrahedr al .

.

.

H2O •• •• H O H •• •• 2 bond pairs 2 lone pairs The The molecular molecular geometry geometry is is BENT BENT.Structure Determination by VSEPR Water.. The The electron electron pair pair geometry geometry is is TETRAHEDRAL TETRAHEDRAL .

N H lone pair of electrons in tetrahedral position H H The MOLECULAR GEOMETRY — the positions of the atoms — is TRIGONAL PYRAMID. NH3 The electron pair geometry is tetrahedral. .Structure Determination by VSEPR Ammonia.

(difference in electronegativity) + ­ •• •• H Cl •• Cl has a greater share in bonding electrons than does H.Bond Polarity HCl is POLAR because it has a positive end and a negative end. Cl has slight negative charge (- ) and H has slight positive charge (+  ) .

Bond Polarity • This is why oil and water will not mix! Oil is nonpolar. • The two will repel each other. and so you can not dissolve one in the other . and water is polar.

Bond Polarity • “Like Dissolves Like” –Polar dissolves Polar –Nonpolar dissolves Nonpolar .

0: Ionic – 0.3: Non-Polar Covalent Example: NaCl Na = 0.0 to 0.8.2.Electronegativity Difference • If the difference in electronegativities is between: – 1.7 to 4.3 to 1. so this is an ionic bond! .7: Polar Covalent – 0.0 Difference is 2. Cl = 3.

Diatomic Elements • These elements do not exist as a single atom. they always appear as pairs • When atoms turn into ions. this NO LONGER HAPPENS! – – – – – – – Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Remember: BrINClHOF .

but willing to share. .Polar Covalent Bonds: Unevenly matched.

Van der Waals Forces Small. weak interactions between molecules .

Van der Waals Forces Intermolecular: between molecules (not a bond) Intramolecular: bonds within molecules (stronger) .

3 Types of Van der Waals Forces 1) dipole-dipole 2) dipole-induced dipole 3) dispersion .

Dipole-Dipole Two polar molecules align so that + and . The slightly region of a polar molecule is weakly attracted to the slightly positive region of another polar molecule. Similar to but much weaker than ionic bonds. . fluromethane (CH3F) Occurs when polar molecules are attracted to one another.are matched (electrostatic attraction) Ex: ethane (C2H6) vs.

Dispersion Forces The weakest of all molecular interactions. Dispersion is the ONLY intermolecular attraction that occurs between non-polar molecules . are caused by the motion of electrons.

Review Dipole – between two polar molecules Dispersionbetween two non-polar molecules .

Hydrogen Bonding STRONGEST Intermolecular Force!! A special type of dipole-dipole attraction Bonds form due to the polarity of water. Ice Liquid .

Hydrogen Bonding con’t Hydrogen bonds keep water in the liquid phase over a wider range of temperatures than is found for any other molecule of its size .

How many drops can you get on a penny? Water? http://www.msnucleus.org/membership/html/k-6/wc/water/1/images/penny.jpg Why is there a difference??? Water has strong Hydrogen Bonds and TTE has weaker intermolecular forces .

sg/2500/micelle.How is surface tension affected by soap? Breaks the surface tension! http://www.com/CHM107/Water/SoapDisruptsWater.jpg http://www.chemistryland.edu.nus.jpg .chemistry.

on whether it is ionic or covalent. • Network Solids are solids in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded together. • Melting a network solid would require breaking covalent bonds throughout the solid. rather it vaporizes to a gas at 3500 degrees Celsius and above. .Intermolecular Attractions and Molecular Properties • The physical properties of a compound depend on the type of bonding it displays-in particular. • Diamond does not melt.

• There are 3 forms of bonding: • _________—complete transfer of 1 or more electrons from one atom to another (one loses. the other gains) forming oppositely charged ions that attract one another • _________—some valence electrons shared between atoms • _________ – holds atoms of a metal together .Review of Chemical Bonds Most bonds are somewhere in between ionic and covalent.

Review of Valence Electrons Number of valence electrons of a main (A) group atom = Group number .

Review Review of of Valence Valence Electrons Electrons • Remember from the electron chapter that valence electrons are the electrons in the OUTERMOST energy level… that’s why we did all those electron configurations! • B is 1s2 2s2 2p1. so the outer energy level is 2. These are the valence electrons! • Br is [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p5 How many valence electrons are present? . and there are 2+1 = 3 electrons in level 2.

H •• Cl • • •• shared or bond pair lone pair (LP) This is called a LEWIS structure.Bond and Lone Pairs • Valence electrons are distributed as shared or BOND PAIRS and unshared or LONE PAIRS. .