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Galvanize It!


American Galvanizers
The American Galvanizers Association
(AGA) is a non-profit trade association
dedicated to serving the needs of afterfabrication galvanizers, fabricators,
architects, specifiers, and engineers
The AGA provides technical support on
today's innovative applications and stateof-the-art technological developments in
hot-dip galvanizing for corrosion control

Continuing Education Credit
American Institute of
Learning Units (HSW)

National Council of Examiners
for Engineering & Surveying
Professional Development Hours

Continuing Education
AIA/CES Policy on Endorsement: The
following program is registered with the
AIA/CES and does not include content
that may be deemed or construed to be
an approval, sponsorship, or
endorsement of any material of
construction or any method or manner of
handling, using, distributing, or dealing in
any material or product.

As such. Credit earned upon completion of this program will be reported to RCEPP. A certificate of completion will be issued to each participant. 5 .Continuing Education The American Galvanizers Association has met the standards and requirements of the Registered Continuing Education Providers Program. it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by NCEES or RCEPP.

engineers. and other specifiers about hot-dip galvanized steel and how it can address the growing corrosion problem throughout North America. 6 .Purpose of this Seminar The purpose of this seminar is to inform and educate architects.

specifically hot-dip galvanizing.Learning Objectives At the end of this presentation you will be able to: • Recognize the corrosion issues confronting the United States • Describe how zinc coatings. can protect against steel corrosion • Incorporate sound corrosion protection into the design of steel products that can significantly decrease maintenance costs over the life of a structure 7 .

Tour of the City

The Corrosion Problem


The Corrosion Problem

Bridge in Denver, CO
Bridge in Denver, CO

The Corrosion Problem

Corroded Trolley


The Corrosion Problem Coors Field – Denver. CO 12 .

The Corrosion Problem Corroded Pier 13 .

The Corrosion Problem Williamsburg Bridge .New York City. NY 14 .

Corrosion Costs NACE. inconvenience 15 . & FHWA jointly produced a report in 2001 detailing the costs of corrosion • $297 billion USD annually • 3.1% of US GDP (1998) Hazardous • Public safety. CC Technologies. environmental contamination Natural Resources • Waste production. increased energy consumption Public Outcry • Traffic. property damage.

The Solution: Hot-Dip Galvanizing .

Barrier Protection Weathered Guardrail 17 .

18 .Cathodic Protection: Galvanic Series ZINC .Anode STEEL .Cathode This arrangement of metals determines what metal will be the anode and cathode when the two are put in a electrolytic cell (arrangement dependent on salt water as electrolyte).

such as galvanized steel. damaged areas will be protected by the surrounding zinc 19 .Cathodic Protection Exposed Steel is Protected Zinc Coating Bare Steel With a cathodically protective coating.

20 . The galvanizing reaction only occurs on perfectly clean steel. The steel is inspected after galvanizing to ensure conformance to the appropriate specifications.HDG Process Steel is dipped in a series of tanks including solutions that remove impurities from the steel surface.

Long-Lasting Zinc Protection Barrier Cathodic Zinc Patina Barrier Long-lasting Protection Zinc Patina Cathodic 21 .

provides protective layer Caustic cleaning 22 . oils. organic residue Pickling • Removes mill scale and oxides Fluxing • Mild cleaning.HDG Process: Surface Prep Zinc-iron metallurgical bond only occurs on clean steel Degreasing • Removes dirt.

HDG Process: Galvanizing Zinc bath removal Steel articles are immersed in a bath of molten zinc (≈ 830 0F) > 98% pure zinc. Ni) Zinc reacts with iron in the steel to form galvanized coating. 23 . minor elements added for coating properties (Al. Bi.

Surface defects easily identified through visual inspection. 24 .HDG Process: Inspection Steel articles are inspected after galvanizing to verify conformance to appropriate specs. Coating thickness verified through magnetic thickness gauge readings.

Hot-Dip Galvanized Coating Properties .

Metallurgical Bond 26 .

Edge Protection Same thickness at corner Micrograph of galvanized edge 27 .

Additional Benefits of HDG Complete Coverage 28 .

Additional Benefits of HDG Variety of sizes and shapes 29 .

Additional Benefits of HDG Availability 30 .

Galvanizing is Green Zinc is 100% recyclable as is the steel • Properties of zinc do not degrade w/ reprocessing • Zinc is a natural element in the Earth’s crust The longevity of galvanizing means no additional energy exerted or waste created maintaining galvanized structures 31 .

Estimated Service Life of HDG 32 .

Other Zinc Coatings for Corrosion Protection .

Metallizing Shop or in-field application Suitable for very large pieces Coating Properties: • Thick coating • Mechanical bond • Less dense than HDG zinc layers • No interior coverage Metallizing Appliation 34 .

Zinc Rich Paint Metallic zinc dust • Inorganic • Organic Barrier protection Cathodic protection • Limited • Dependent on % Zn Zinc Rich Paint Application Use salt spray data to make performance claims 35 .

Sheet Galvanized Produced by a continuous in-line hot-dip process • Coil-to-coil process • 400-500 FPM • “Air knives” remove excess zinc • Pure zinc with little alloy layer • Galvannealed (Zn-Fe) • Galvalume (55% Al) Sheet Steel of Continuous 36 .

54 G90 0.60 0.) Coating Thickness per Side (mils) G60 0.Sheet Galvanized ASTM A653 – specify total coating weights.90 0. most common G60 and G90 • Weights represent total coating weight for both sides of the sheet Coating Weight (ounces/sq. ft.81 37 .

Electroplated Strip. or small parts • Smooth finish • Slightly more expensive than sheet galvanized Good formability Paintable Electroplating Application 38 . sheet.

Zinc (Mechanical) Plating Similar to electroplating • used for fasteners and small parts Parts are tumbled in drum with zinc powder and glass beads • mechanically bonded zinc Mechanical Plating Application 39 .

Other Zinc Coatings Metallizing Sheet Galvanized Hot-Dip Galvanized Zinc-Rich Paint Electroplated 40 .

Design & Fabrication .

42 .

Materials Suitable for Hot-Dip Galvanizing 43 .

Hot-Dip Galvanized Fasteners Hot-dip galvanized fasteners are recommended for joining HDG structurals 44 .

Steel Reactivity 45 .

Coating Appearance Newly Galvanized Newly Galvanized Dull Coating No Spangle Newly Galvanized Newly Installed Highly Spangle Shiny & Dull Coating 46 .

Combining Different Materials 47 .

Weathering of Galvanized Steel Photo taken: 12/18/02 Photo taken: 03/28/03 48 .

Dissimilar Thicknesses Different thickness • Zinc bath temperature at different times Similar thickness • Maintain original shape 49 .

Galvanizing Oversized Pieces Progressive Dipping 50 .

Material Handling 51 .

Venting & Drainage Vent Drain 52 .

Specifications & Inspection .

ASTM Standards for Galvanizing Galvanized Products • ASTM A 123 – general • ASTM A 153 – small parts • ASTM A 767 – rebar Supporting Specifications • ASTM • ASTM • ASTM • ASTM • ASTM A 143 – embrittlement A 384 – distortion A 385 – high-quality coatings A 780 – repair D 6386 – surface prep for painting over 54 .

uniform • Adherence – should be tightly adherent through all expected uses of article 55 . smooth.ASTM A 123 Standard Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products • Coating Thickness – material category and steel thickness • Finish – continuous.

length • Finish – continuous. steel thickness. uniform • Adherence – should be tightly adherent through all expected uses of article 56 .ASTM A 153 Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware • Coating Thickness – material category. smooth.

ASTM A 767 Standard Specification for Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement • Coating Thickness – smooth or deformed (no wire). 57 . bar size • Chromating –prevent reaction between fresh cement and recently galvanized material • Bend Diameters – flaking and cracking due to fabrication are not rejectable.

or metallizing • Zinc-rich paint .most common but must have certain amounts of zinc dust as required by spec • Zinc-based solder – good for small areas. closely mirrors typical HDG coating appearance • Metallizing – excellent corrosion protection 58 .ASTM A 780 Standard Practice for Repair of Damaged and Uncoated Areas of HotDip Galvanized Coatings • Zinc-rich paint. zinc-based solder.

Hot-Dip Galvanizing Costs Less & Lasts Longer .

000 ft2 project 60 . tubing.Quantitative Analysis Initial cost vs. Lifecycle cost • Based on 2006 galvanizing industry survey -nationwide • 2006 KTA-Tator paper paint industry survey – nationwide • Standard mix of steel products (structural. plate) • 10.

com Survey data organized in a database Based on specific project data input by the user. etc. expected service life.galvanizingcost.www.) The web site automatically calculates initial and life-cycle cost for the specified paint systems and hot-dip galvanizing 61 . (job size & location. coating type.

Initial Cost Material Shop cleaning labor Shop application Field labor Pneumatic Bulk Trailers 62 .

09 $1.51 $3.31 $2.07 63 .92 $2.Initial Cost ($/ft2) Coating System Inorganic Zinc Inorganic Zinc/Epoxy Hot-Dip Galvanizing Acrylic WB Primer/Acrylic WB Intermediate/Acrylic WB Topcoat Inorganic Zinc Primer/ H-B Epoxy/Acrylic Urethane $/ft2 $1.

unique to each paint system.Life-cycle Cost Maintenance on a ‘practical’ (vs. ideal) cycle . as recommended by paint manufacturers NACE Model for NFV and NPV calculations • 4% inflation • 7% interest Maintenance repaint at 5% rust in a moderately industrial environment 30-Year Project Performance 64 .

43 Acrylic WB Primer/Acrylic WB Intermediate/Acrylic WB Topcoat $7.Life-Cycle Cost ($/ft2) 50-Year Project Performance Coating System Hot-Dip Galvanizing Inorganic Zinc Inorganic Zinc/Epoxy $/ft2 $1.21 $4.92 $3.83 Inorganic Zinc Primer/ H-B Epoxy/Acrylic Urethane $6.98 65 .

302 $79.261 $64.200 $32.099 $48.What Does All of This Mean? Coating System Hot-Dip Galvanizing Inorganic Zinc Inorganic Zinc/Epoxy Inorganic Zinc Primer/ H-B Epoxy/Acrylic Urethane Acrylic WB Primer/Acrylic WB Intermediate/Acrylic WB Topcoat Cost $19.802 66 .

Duplex Systems: Painting & Powder Coating Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel .

Why Paint a Perfectly Good Galvanized Part? Aesthetics • Architects decision Identification Hostile Environment to Zinc Repair of Existing Galvanized Articles • Extended Life of the Product Light Rail Station 68 .

Galvanized Surface Coating Condition Newly Galvanized Steel Partially Weathered Galvanized Steel Fully Weathered Galvanized Steel Painted Bridge Rail 69 .

1 48 hrs. 3 70 . – 2 yrs. – 6 mo.Passivation Cycle Time 0 – 48 hrs. 2 6 mo.

Sweep Blasting 71 .

Duplex System Layers Fence Pole 72 .

Duplex System Synergistic Effect Paint Provides Barrier for Galvanized Surface Galvanized Coating Provides Slow Corrosion Under Paint Paint Peeling due to Corrosion is Minimized Paint & Galvanizing together have 1.5x to 2.5x Life of Individual Lifetimes Skaneateles Community Center 73 .

Galvanized Steel Project Applications .

NY 75 .Brooklyn Bridge Date Galvanized 1999 Sector Bridge & Highway Environment Industrial Location New York.

CALTRANS District 7 HQ Date Galvanized 2004 Sector Building & Architecture Environment Urban Location Los Angeles. CA 76 .

NV 77 .The Cloud at Fashion Show Mall Date Galvanized 2003 Sector Building & Architecture Environment Urban Location Las Vegas.

PA 78 .Harrisburg Airport Transportation Facility Date Galvanized 2004 Sector Building & Architecture Environment Urban Location Harrisburg.

Utility & Communication Environment Rural Location California 79 .Cell Towers – Tree Application Date Galvanized 2004 Sector Electrical.

Leprino Foods Date Galvanized Unknown Sector Food & Agriculture Environment Rural Location Waverly. NY 80 .

Piers 1 & 21 Replacement Date Galvanized 2002 Sector Water & Marine Environment Marine Location Norfolk. VA 81 .

org Technical Library Galvanizing Insights e-Newsletter 82 .AGA Resources 1-800-HOT-SPEC (800.7732) www.