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CUSTOMER TRAINING

What the Drive Does ?

Electrical Power

DRIVE
Motor

A&D2/ATU

Torque

Rotation

Mechanical Power

AC-DRV-BASIC

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CUSTOMER TRAINING

Conventional Technology
Electric
Supply

Starter

Belt /
Gear

Motor

Control over Torque & Speed of the motor ?

Machine

NO !

Requirement of Modern Machines
Electric
Supply

Power
Converter

Motor

Machine

Drive
Control over Torque & Speed of the motor ?
A&D2/ATU

YES !
DRV-BASIC

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CUSTOMER TRAINING

Torque requirement
Torque

Torque

T2

T2
T1

T1
N1

N2

Speed Variation
A&D2/ATU

Speed

Speed

N
Load Variation

AC-DRV-BASIC

s CUSTOMER TRAINING Few expectations from the Drive • Variable speed at the motor shaft maintaining torque producing capability of the motor • Speed regulation • Controlled acceleration & deceleration • Quick & safe reversal and braking • Current limiting • Protection against abnormal conditions • Auto-optimization • Easy fault diagnostics • Communication capable A&D2/ATU • Energy Saving AC-DRV-BASIC .

s CUSTOMER TRAINING Controlled Acceleration & Deceleration Speed Reqd. Speed time t1 Ramp-up time A&D/ATU t2 Ramp down time DRV-BASIC .

s CUSTOMER TRAINING Stopping & Braking of Motors N stop OFF2 OFF1 time OFF3 Coasting Stop along Ramp-down time Braking or Quick Stop A&D/ATU DRV-BASIC .

And we say that induction motor is constant speed motor. A&D/ATU DRV-BASIC .s CUSTOMER TRAINING Speed Control of Three Phase Induction Motor Synchronous Speed = Ns = 120 f P Ns α f Nr < Ns . Hence % Slip = Ns-Nr Ns X 100 Normally 4 to 6 % Slip is common for all practical applications.

then flux will also reduce.s CUSTOMER TRAINING Why we require variable voltage ? Torque is proportional to Flux and Armature current .Therefore we need to reduce voltage proportional to reduction in frequency. T α Φx I Φ α V f Thus if we reduce only frequency . A&D/ATU DRV-BASIC .

s CUSTOMER TRAINING General block diagram of Inverter . 3 Φ Variable Voltage Variable Frequency + Rectifier Inverter - 3 Φ Constant Voltage Constant Frequency A&D/ATU DRV-BASIC .

s CUSTOMER TRAINING Rectifier Section Uncontrolled Bridge Rectifier R ▬ ▲ ▬ ▲ Y ▬ ▲ ▬ ▲ B ▬ ▲ ▬ ▲ + Input AC Voltage Output DC Voltage - A&D/ATU DRV-BASIC .

s CUSTOMER TRAINING Converting DC in to AC AC Output +/DC Input S1 S2 LOAD S3 S4 -/+ Periodic reversal of polarity occurs by switching S1S4 and S2S3 switches A&D/ATU DRV-BASIC .

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s CUSTOMER TRAINING Transistorized Inverter Block Diagram Supply Motor + C C - DC Link Inverter Rectifier A&D/ATU DRV-BASIC .

s CUSTOMER TRAINING Pulse Width Modulated Waveform Voltage Current 0V Time Pulse Width Modulation A&D/ATU DRV-BASIC .

s CUSTOMER TRAINING Pulse Width Modulated Waveform • Voltage going to the inverter is chopped rectangular shape • Pulse Width is varying . • PWM voltage is of high frequency chopped pulses. • Due to motor inductance the current flowing through winding will be of sinusoidal nature A&D/ATU DRV-BASIC .

s CUSTOMER TRAINING Basic Induction Motor Characteristics with V/f control Torque Pull out Torque Normal Operating Point Speed Variable frequency operation Slip Torque Speed Characteristic of An Induction Motor A&D/ATU DRV-BASIC .

s CUSTOMER TRAINING Block diagram of V/f control V V/f characteristics block Nref RFG Inverter Bridge v f ref - Current limiting Controller Modulator + f M Slip Compensation f A&D/ATU DRV-BASIC .

• Speed Accuracy • Torque Accuracy • Speed range • Dynamic Performance • Performance at low speed • Shock load operation A&D/ATU DRV-BASIC .s CUSTOMER TRAINING Vector Control • V/f Control is called as open loop control. • Vector control operation is performed because it has following advantages.

s CUSTOMER TRAINING Vector Control How vector control works ? • In AC Motor the stator winding current sets the Flux and torque. therefore it is difficult to control Flux and Torque separately. A&D/ATU Itotal Iload Iflux DRV-BASIC . In drive above independent control of Flux and Torque producing components is achieved with the help of high speed microprocessor and the same is called as Vector Control.

s CUSTOMER TRAINING Vector Control Block diagram of Vector Control operation Iμ Iμ Speed Controller Coordinate converter I μRef RFG N Gating I Iw Unit Inv I w Ref Iw Iμ Slip Motor Model M A&D/ATU DRV-BASIC .

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