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Reported by:
Karla Mae A. Barayoga

  Developed the first three "Laws of learning:" readiness. . five additional principles have been added: primacy. exercise. which seem generally applicable to the learning process. They provide additional insight into what makes people learn most effectively. intensity.    Educational Psychology and Pedagogues have identified several Principles of learning. freedom and  requirement. also referred to as laws of learning. tested. These principles have been discovered. (Thorndike Edward) Since Thorndike set down his basic three laws in the early part of the twentieth century. and used in practical situations. and effect. recency.

If students have a strong purpose. and a definite reason for learning something. Individuals learn best when they are physically. when students are ready to learn. and providing continuous mental or physical challenge. they make more progress than if they lack motivation.  Readiness . they meet the instructor at least halfway. and do not learn well if they see no reason for learning. a clear objective.  Getting students ready to learn. is usually the instructor’s responsibility. In other words.implies a degree of concentration and eagerness.The major principles of learning. simplifying the instructor’s job. and emotionally ready to learn. creating interest by showing the value of the subject matter. . mentally.

students may have little interest in learning. If they are distracted by outside responsibilities. Basic needs of students must be satisfied before they are ready or capable of learning. have overcrowded schedule. Students who are exhausted or in ill health cannot learn much. students must have adequate rest. interests. or other unresolved tissue. . Since learning is an active process. or worries. health. and physical ability.

It is clear that practice leads to improvement only when it is followed by positive feedback.  EXERCISE . The key here is that the practice must be meaningful. It is the basis of drill and practice. .states that those things most often repeated are best remembered. It has been proven that students learn best and retain information longer when they have meaningful practice and repetition.

The mind can rarely retain. Students do not learn complex tasks in a single session.  The human memory is fallible. . Every time practice occurs. The instructor must repeat important items of subject matter at reasonable interval. These include student recall. All of these serve to create learning habits. review and summary. evaluate. and apply new concepts or practices after a single exposure. and provide opportunities for students to practice while making sure that this process is directed toward a goal. learning continues. They learn by applying what they have been told and shown. and manual drill and physical applications.

and that learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling. instructors should be cautious about using punishment in the classroom. Whatever the learning situation. .is based on the emotional reaction of the student. The principle of effect is that learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling. It has a direct relationship to motivation. Therefore. The student will strive to continue doing what provides a pleasant effect to continue learning. Positive reinforcement is more apt to lead to success and motivate the learner.   Effect . so the instructor should recognize and commend improvement. it should contain elements that affect the students positively and give them a feeling of satisfaction.

confusion. or futility are unpleasant for the student. is within their capability to understand or perform. However. A student’s chance of success is definitely increased if the learning experience is a pleasant one. although difficult. Experiences that produce feelings of defeat. the student is likely to feel inferior and be frustrated.   One of the important obligations of the instructor is to set up the learning situation in such a manner that each trainee will be able to see evidence of progress and achieve some degree of success. an instructor attempts to teach advanced concepts on the initial engagement. for example. Usually it is better to tell students that a problem or task. Every learning experience does not have to be entirely successful. frustration. anger. Impressing upon students the difficulty of a task to be learned can make the teaching task difficult. every learning experience should contain elements that leave the student with some good feelings. If. . nor does the student have to master each lesson completely.

functional. Things learned first create a strong impression in the mind that is difficult to erase. this means that what is taught must be right the first time. “Unteaching” wrong first impressions is harder than teaching them right the first time. the instructor will have a difficult task correcting bad habits and “re-teaching” correct ones.   Primacy . The student's first experience should be positive. If. almost unshakable. impression.the state of being first. What the student learns must be procedurally correct and applied the very first time. it means that learning must be right. often creates a strong. . For the student. a student learns a faulty technique. and lay the foundation for all that is to follow. For the instructor. for example.

making sure the students have already learned the preceding step. step by step. Preparing and following a lesson plan facilitates delivery of the subject matter correctly the first time. If the task is learned in isolation. or if it must be relearned. . The instructor must present subject matter in a logical order. the process can be confusing and time consuming. is not initially applied to the overall performance.

it is fairly easy to recall a telephone number dialed a few minutes ago.  Recency . the more difficult it is to remember. Conversely. the further a student is removed time-wise from a new fact or understanding. but it is usually impossible to recall a new number dialed last week.states that things most recently learned are best remembered. For example. the more apt the learner will be to perform successfully. . The closer the training or learning time is to the time of actual need to apply the training.

The principle of recency often determines the sequence of lectures within a course of instruction. The instructor repeats. Instructors recognize the principle of recency when they carefully plan a summary for a lesson or learning situation. or reemphasizes important points at the end of a lesson to help the student remember them. restates.  Information acquired last generally is remembered best. frequent review and summarization help fix in the mind the material covered. .

a student can get more understanding and appreciation of a movie by watching it than by reading the script. the more likely it will be retained. a student is likely to gain greater understanding of tasks by performing them rather than merely reading about them. . the more impressive the learning is upon the student. dramatic. A sharp. The more immediate and dramatic the learning is to a real situation. The principle of intensity implies that a student will learn more from the real thing than from a substitute. clear.   Intensity -he more intense the material taught. or exciting learning experience teaches more than a routine or boring experience. For example. vivid. Likewise. Real world applications that integrate procedures and tasks that students are capable of learning will make a vivid impression on them.

to improve realism. Classroom instruction can benefit from a wide variety of instructional aids. touch. Examples. smell. motivate learning. and role playing do much to increase the learning experience of students. . rhythm. The instructor needs to use imagination in approaching reality as closely as possible. balance. sight. and voice. showmanship. Instructors should emphasize important points of instruction with gestures. Demonstrations. skits. Instructors should make full use of the senses (hearing. taste. In contrast to practical instruction. the classroom imposes limitations on the amount of realism that can be brought into teaching. and others). analogies. and personal experiences also make learning come to life. and challenge students. depth perception.

If no freedom is granted. the more difficult is for him to learn. Conversely.states that things freely learned are best learned. The greater the freedom enjoyed by individuals within a society. the greater the intellectual and moral advancement enjoyed by society as a whole. assimilate and implement what is learned. students may have little interest in learning. the further a student is coerced. . freedom to bear the results of action—these are the three great freedoms that constitute personal responsibility.  Freedom . freedom of action. Since learning is an active process. students must have freedom: freedom of choice. Compulsion and coercion are antithetical to personal growth.

. if you want to draw a person. for example. you need to have the materials with which to draw.The law of requirement states that "we must have something to obtain or do something. A starting point or root is needed. instrument or anything that may help us to learn or gain something." It can be an ability. skill. and you must know how to draw a point. Requirement . a figure and so on until you reach your goal. a line. which is to draw a person.

 Games use the technique of flow. the experience itself is so enjoyable that people will do it even at great cost. improve understanding."   The primary aim of flow in games is to create intrinsically motivating experiences. or increase retention) can show such incredible results.Laws of Learning Applied to Learning Games:  The principles of learning have been presented as an explanation for why learning games (the use of games to introduce material. the principles of learning present conditions which are very similar to a number of the design techniques used in games. . which is "the state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter. for the sheer sake of doing it. which is a part of the principle of readiness.[1] In particular.

. Finally. satisfaction. which is part of the principle of intensity. part of the primary appeal of games is that they are fun. Games use immersion and engagement as ways to create riveting experiences for players.[1] They use practice to prolong game play. readiness. and enjoyment which are part of the principle of effect. which links back to the principles of exercise. Although fun is hard to define. which goes with practice as part of exercise. and effect. This impacts flow and motivation and increases the positive feelings toward the activity. pleasure. Game designers also place heavy emphasis on feedback.  Games use many other techniques which tie to the principles of learning. it is clear that it involves feelings such as engagement. and accurately correlate actions to corrective feedback. balance difficulty versus skill. which is part of the principle of exercise. Games use the technique of simplicity to reduce distractions.

THANK YOU!!!!!  .