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**The flux produced by field winding
**

MMF is sinusoidal

MMF

Flux is sinusoidal

1

No of

conductors

3

2 4

3 1

4 2

Therefore, Induced

armature voltage is

sinusoidal.

**Flux and MMF Phasors
**

Consider cylindrical rotor alternator operation.

Case 1: No Load Operation

Alternator is rotated at syn speed by prime mover

Field wdg is excited

Armature voltage is induced which is given by

Va0=Vt0=Ef=4.44 f Tph Φf Kw

Ef= No load voltage, Excitation voltage or Excitation emf.

Tph= Turns per phase of arm wdg.

Φf = Flux per pole produced by field winding

Kw= Winding Factor

**Generated emf lags the flux by 900.
**

No Load Voltage,

Ef

Excitation Voltage

Ef

Φf

Axis of Field

Ff Φf

900

Alternator phasor diagram at no load

Case 2: Unity Power Factor Load B1 Y2 Axis of Field R1 N S R2 Φf B2 Y1 .

Case 2: Unity Power Factor Load N pole rotate anticlockwise Conductor R1 moves clockwise. Axis of armature winding R1R2 Axis of Field Y2 B1 S Fa Φa R1 N S R2 Φf B2 N Y1 Emf is induced with dot polarity in R1 (RHR) In R2 cross polarity .

Axis of armature Y2 winding R1R2 Resultant air gap flux Φr Axis of Field R1 B1 S Φa N S R2 Φf B2 N Y1 Emf is induced with dot polarity in R1 (RHR) In R2 cross polarity .Case 2: Unity Power Factor Load N pole rotate anticlockwise Conductor R1 moves clockwise.

Case 2: Unity Power Factor Load

Ef

ω

Axis of armature

winding R1R2

Resultant air gap flux

Φr

Fr

Axis of Field

Fa

Φa

Ff

Φf

Ia

ω

ω

Time-phasor

diagram of Ef

and Ia at upf

Space-phasor diagram of mmf and flux

**Case 2: Unity Power Factor Load
**

It is a Rotor which

Ef

has to move

clockwise

ω S

Ia

Attraction

Φr

Fa

Te

Fr

Φa

N

S

Ff

Φf

Repultion N

Combined Space and Time phasor diagram at upf

**Case 2: Unity Power Factor Load
**

It is a Rotor which

Ef

Te and ω are in

has to move

opposite

clockwise

direction

Electromagnetic

torque Te is towards

ω S

Ia resultant mmf or flux.

Attraction

Φr

Fa

Field

poles

Te

Fr

Φa

are leading

N

S

to arm poles

Ff

Arm reaction

Φf

mmf is crossRepultion N

magnetizing at

upf.

Combined Space and Time phasor diagram at upf

Case 3: Zero Power Factor Lagging Load Ef Ff -Fa=Fr Φf . ω Te Φr Ff Φf Fr Φa Fa Ia Combined Space and Time phasor diagram at zero pf lagging .Φa= Φr Arm reaction mmf is de-magnetizing at zero pf lagging.

Case 4: Zero Power Factor Leading Load Ef Ff +Fa=Fr Φf + Φa= Φr ω Te Fr Arm reaction mmf is magnetizing at zero pf leading. Ia Fa Φ a Φr Ff Φf Combined Space and Time phasor diagram at zero pf leading .

Case 5: Lagging Power Factor Load Load with lagging pf is common load Ef Ff +Fa=Fr Φf + Φa= Φr Fr Te ω Φr ψ Φ Ia Fa Φa Ff Φf Combined Space and Time Phasor Diagram at Lagging Power Factor load .

Case 5: Lagging Power Factor Load Ψ=90+θ Two mmfs are sinusoidaly distributed along the air gap periphery. Due to uniform air gap Φ Ia Φr Φa Φf Fa ψ Φa Φr Ff Φf ψ . The relative velocity between the two mmfs is zero.

Case 5: Lagging Power Factor Load Er= Air gap voltage Ef Ψ=90+θ Φr Ff Φf Er 900 Φ Ia ψ Fa Φa Er Φr .

add Mutual Inductance drop. jIaXm No load voltage Ef is obtained . subtract leakage impedance drop jIaxl and Iara Terminal voltage Fa or bus voltage is Φa Vt obtained In air gap voltage.Case 5: Lagging Power Factor Load jIaXm Ef Ψ=90+Φ ψ Ff Φf jIaxl Er Φ Ia Φr Er= Air gap voltage Iara From air gap voltage.

Case 5: Lagging Power Factor Load jIaXs jIaXm jI x a l Ef Ψ=90+Φ Er Φ Ia Vt Iara Xm+xl =Xs .

rotor generator is Ef=Vt+Iara+jIaXs For generator Ef leads Vt Iara The angle between Vt and Ia is θ.Case 5: Lagging Power Factor Load jIaXs Ef Ψ=90+Φ Ψ=90+ δ+θ for generator The angle between Ef and Ia is Φ=δ+θ. internal displacement angle or internal power factor angle δ Φ θ Ia Vt Xm+xl =Xs Thus voltage equation of cyl. torque angle or load angle . power factor angle The angle between Vt and Ef is δ. power angle.

Case 5: Lagging Power Factor Load j¯I X a s Ef leads to Vt for Generator I¯a r Ψ=90+Φ Ψ=90+ δ+θ for generator Ef=Vt+Iara+jIaXs Actualy variables are phasors a ¯f E δ ¯t V θ E f Vt I a ra jI a X s Ia .

Case 5: Lagging Power Factor Load Ψ=90+Φ Ef Ψ=(90+ δ+θ) <180 for generator jI aX Ef=Vt+Iara+jIaXs s δ Vt θ If resistance is neglected Ef=Vt+jIaXs Ia .

Unity Power Factor Ψ=90+Φ Ψ=90+ δ+θ for generator jIaXs Ef Ef=Vt+Iara+jIaXs δ Vt Ia If resistance is neglected Ef=Vt+jIaXs .

Leading Power Factor Ψ=90+Φ Ef Ef=Vt+Iara+jIaXs jI aX s δ Vt If resistance is neglected Ef=Vt+jIaXs Ia θ .

Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous Motor For motor arm current is opposite wrt generator Ia= -Ia Axis of armature Consider B1 Y2 winding R1R2 lagging N current Axis of Field for Gen Ia R1 Φf R2 N S Φr -Ia B2 S Y1 Voltage applied with cross polarity to R1 (RHR) and to R2 with dot polarity .

Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous Motor It is a Rotor which has to move anticlockwise Axis of armature winding R1R2 N Axis of Field Repultion ω Φr Attraction Ia Φf N S -Ia S .

N Repultion Te is from N of Axis of Field Ia field pole to S Φf ω N S of arm pole Te Φr Attraction -Ia S This is a motor operation Field poles are DRAGGED behind the resultant air gap flux or by arm poles.Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous Motor It is a Rotor which Te and ω are in has to move same direction anticlockwise Electromagnetic Axis of armature torque Te is towards winding R1R2 resultant mmf or flux. .

rotor motor is Vt=Ef+Iara+jIaXs For motor Vt leads to Ef The angle between Vt and Ia is θ.Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous Motor jI X a a s Ia r Vt Ψ=90+Φ Ψ=90+ θ-δ for motor δ Ef θ The angle between Ef and Ia is Φ=θ-δ. internal displacement angle or internal power factor angle Ia Thus voltage equation of cyl. torque angle or load angle . power angle. power factor angle The angle between Vt and Ef is δ.

Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous Motor Vt jI aX Vt s θ Ia Vt=Ef+Iara+jIaXs s δ Ef δ jI aX Ef θ If resistance is neglected Vt=Ef+jIaXs Ia Ψ=(90+ θ – δ) <180 for motor Phasor Diagram at Lagging Power Factor .

Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous Motor Unity Power Factor Vt Vt=Ef+Iara+jIaXs jIaXs Ef δ Ia If resistance is neglected Vt=Ef+jIaXs Ψ=(90+ θ – δ) <180 for motor .

Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous Motor Leading Power Factor Ef s X jI a Vt δ Vt=Ef+Iara+jIaXs If resistance is neglected Vt=Ef+jIaXs Ia θ .

The arm flux is independent of spatial orientation wrt field poles.Salient Pole Synchronous Generator In cyl rotor. The reluctance along d axis is much smaller than q axis. air gap is not uniform. air gap is uniform. Resolve arm mmf along d axis and along q axis. The arm flux is greater along d axis than along q axis. . In salient pole.

Axis Arm wdg along Q-axis FIELD .Axis Arm wdg along D-axis ARMATURE MMF ARMATURE Q .Salient Pole Synchronous Generator D .

air gap is not uniform. The arm flux is independent of spatial orientation wrt field poles. The reluctance along d axis is much smaller than q axis. air gap is uniform. Resolve arm mmf along d axis and along q axis. In salient pole. So two mmf along d axis and one mmf along q axis .Salient Pole Synchronous Generator In cyl rotor. The arm flux is greater along d axis than along q axis.

Ff -Fa=Fr Φf . .Φa= Φr Te D Ef ω Fr D Φf Φa Φr Φr Ff Φ f Q Φa Fa Combined Space and Time phasor diagram Ia N S Demagnetizing action Resultant flux decreases.Salient Pole Synchronous Generator Consider arm current Ia lagging to Ef by 900.

. Ff +Fa=Fr Φf + Φa= Φr Te Fr D Ef ω Φf Φr Ia Fa Φa Ff Φ f Combined Space and Time phasor diagram Q D Φr Φa N S Magnetizing action Resultant flux increases.Salient Pole Synchronous Generator Consider arm current Ia leading to Ef by 900.

air gap is max. More reluctance.Salient Pole Synchronous Generator Consider arm current Ia is in phase with Ef. Ff +Fa=Fr Φf +Φa= Φr Te D Ef ω Ia Fa Φa Ff Φ f Combined Space and Time phasor diagram Φf Q D Φa Saddle shape N S Fa Along q axis. less flux .

D Ef ω Φf +Φa= Φr Te Ia Fa Φa Ff Φ f Combined Space and Time phasor diagram Φf Q D Φa Saddle shape N S Fa Saddle flux consists of Fundamental & 3rd harmonic component .Salient Pole Synchronous Generator Consider arm current Ia is in phase with Ef.

Thus distorted resultant flux is obtained Q D D Ef ω Φf +Φa= Φr Φf Φa Ia Fa Saddle shape Te Φa Ff Φ f Combined Space and Time phasor diagram N S Fa So emf consists of fundamental & 3rd harmonic component .Salient Pole Synchronous Generator Consider arm current Ia is in phase with Ef.

. In actual practice. Ia lags Ef due to industrial and domestic load. then there is magnetizing action If Ia is in phase with Ef. Arm mmf Fa produces effect on both axes d and q. then there is demagnetizing action If Ia leads Ef by 900. then resultant flux is distorted containing 3rd harmonic flux.Salient Pole Synchronous Generator Thus it can be concluded that If Ia lags Ef by 900.

Ef Iq Ia Fq Φ Fa Φa ψ Ff Φ f Fd Id Two MMFs along d axis One MMFs along q axis The voltage drop due to Id =jIdXd jIdXd= jIdXmd+ jIdxdl The voltage drop along q axis=jIqXq jIqXq= jIqXmq+ jIqxql .Salient Pole Synchronous Generator Id=IasinΦ Iq=IacosΦ Fd=FasinΦ Fq=FacosΦ .

Fq=Facosβ Er jIaxl I r a Vt Ia a Φ Fa Φa Fd Id Two MMFs along d axis One MMFs along q axis The voltage drop along d axis=jIdXd jIdXd= jIdXmd+ jIdxdl The voltage drop along q axis=jIqXq jIqXq= jIqXmq+ jIqxql .Salient Pole Synchronous Generator Id=Iasinβ Iq=Iacosβ Ef Fr Iq Fq ψ Ff Φ f Fd=Fasinβ.

Salient Pole Synchronous Generator jIqXmq Ef jIdXd q Id IdXd d Iq ψ jIdXmd jIqxql jIdxdl Er jIaxl Iara Vt Ia Id jIqXq IqXq Iq .

Salient Pole Synchronous Generator jIqXmq jIqxql Ef jIdXmd jIdxdl q Iq d ψ Vt Iara Ia Id jIdXd= jIdXmd+ jIdxdl jIqXq= jIqXmq+ jIqxql .

Ef=Vt +Iara +jIdXd +jIqXq jIqjIXX mq jIqxql q q Ef jIdXd jIdXmd jIdxdl q δ Iq d ψ Simplified Phasor Diagram for Lagging Power Factor θ Vt Iara Ia Ψ=(90+δ+θ) <180 Id jIdXd= jIdXmd+ jIdxdl jIqXq= jIqXmq+ jIqxql .Salient Pole Synchronous Generator Voltage equation of salient pole Syn Gen.

Salient Pole Synchronous Generator Phasor Diagram for Unity Power Factor Voltage equation of salient pole Syn Gen. Ef=Vt +Iara +jIdXd +jIqXq Ef leads to Vt for generator d Ef q Iq ψ jIqXq jIdXd I ar a δ Vt Ia Ψ=(90+δ+θ) <180 θ=0 Id .

Salient Pole Synchronous Generator Phasor Diagram for Leading Power Factor Voltage equation of salient pole Syn Gen. Ef=Vt +Iara +jIdXd +jIqXq Ef jIqXq Vt q δ Ia Iq θ ψ d jIdXd Iara Id Ψ=(90+[δ-θ]) <180 .

Salient Pole Synchronous Generator Phasor Diagram for Leading Power Factor Voltage equation of salient pole Syn Gen. Ef=Vt +Iara +jIdXd +jIqXq d jIdXd Ef jIqXq q δ Ia Iq θ ψ Id Iara Vt Ψ=(90-[θ.δ]) <180 .

for motor Consider Lagging Power Factor operation jIqXq d Phasor Diagram for Lagging Power Factor Ia Id Ψ=90+(θ-δ)<180 .Salient Pole Synchronous Motor Iara Voltage equation of salient pole Syn Motor Ia=-Ia. wrt Gen jIdXd Vt Ef Vt=Ef +Iara +jIdXd +jIqXq δ q Iq θ ψ Vt leads to Ef by δ.

for motor Ia Consider Unity Power Factor operation ψ d q Iq θ=0 Id Phasor Diagram for Unity Power Factor Ψ=(90-δ) <180 . wrt Gen Iara jIqXq E f jIdXd Vt Vt=Ef +Iara +jIdXd +jIqXq δ Vt leads to Ef by δ.Salient Pole Synchronous Motor Voltage equation of salient pole Syn Motor Ia=-Ia.

for motor Consider Leading Power Factor operation Ef d Phasor Diagram for Leading Power Factor q Iq Id Ψ=(90-θ-δ) <180 .Salient Pole Synchronous Motor jIqXq Voltage equation of salient pole Syn Motor Ia=-Ia. wrt Gen I ar a jIdXd Vt δ Vt=Ef +Iara +jIdXd +jIqXq Ia θ ψ Vt leads to Ef by δ.

Salient Pole Synchronous Machines Phasor Diagram of Saturated Machines Saturation means more flux. Rotor Generator . Under saturation reactance is negligible. Value of Xq is fixed Voltage eqn for Generator Ef=Vt +Iara +jIaXq Ef jI X a q Iara q Iq d ψ Vt δ θ Ia Id Phasor Diagram is Similar to Cyl. So under saturation Xd is negligible. More flux is along d axis.

Salient Pole Synchronous Machines Phasor Diagram of Saturated Machines jI X a Vt q Saturation means more flux. Rotor Motor . Ef Under saturation q reactance is negligible. Value of Xq is fixed ψ Id d Voltage eqn for Motor Vt=Ef +Iara +jIaXq Phasor Diagram is Similar to Cyl. δ So under saturation Xd is θ I Ia q negligible. Iara More flux is along d axis.

Ia.Analysis of Phasor Diagram In the problem. But for calculating Id and Iq. generally Vt or Vb or Va. First consider the phasor diagram of salient pole syn generator at lagging power factor. Xq are given. . the power angle δ must be known. For this purpose. power factor angle θ. analysis of phasor diagram is required. Xd.

Since it is perpendicular to Iara. it is a reactance drop jIaX jIqXq From tip of Iara.Analysis of Phasor Diagram δ+ θ X jI First draw a perpendicular line from tip of Iara for GEN.draw perpendicular Ef jIdXd line on ob b Ef’ Extend Ia line a q Consider triangle oa’b and acb a c Vt Iara a’ Therefore bac= δ+θ δ ac=ab cos(δ+θ) ab=IaX x Iq θ Ia ab=IaXq IqXq=IaX cos(δ+θ) IqXq=IqX o Id Xq=X (1) V V .

..Ef’=ob=Vt +Iara +jIaXq =[Mag] δ Thus δ is calculated jIqXq Ef b Ef’ The δ can also be calculated from Δoa’b jIdXd jI X a c Iq o δ+ θ q a Vt Iara a’ δ x θ Ia Id a ' b a ' a ab tan oa ' ox xa' Vt sin I a X q Vt cos I a ra .(2) .........

Ef =Ef ’+bd E f Vt I a ra jI a X q ( X d X q ) I d ..Ef’ bd cd cb I d X d I a X q sin( ) jIqXq Ef d b Ef’ a jIdXd jI X ( X d X q )Id Iq o δ+ θ q c a Vt Iara a’ δ x θ Ia Id Id X d Id X q =+ve So Ef >Ef’ Phasor diagram is correct.Now obtain Ef . (3) ..

draw Ef’ perpendicular line on ob e δ Extend Ia line e’ Iq Ia θ Draw line parallel to ae Id o . it is a reactance drop jIaX a’ jIdXd Vt ab=jIaX c Efb jIqXq From tip of Iara.Consider Syn Gen with Leading Power Factor jI aX First draw a perpendicular line from tip of Iara for (GEN) Since it is perpendicular to a Iara d Iara.

Consider Syn Gen with Leading Power Factor θ.δ ad=ab cos(θ-δ) IqXq=IaX cos(θ-δ) IqXq=IqX Xq=X ……(1) Ef’=Vt+Iara+jIaXq =[Mag] δ Thus δ is calculated .δ jI aX d a Iara a’ jIdXd Vt c Efb jIqXq Ef’ e δ e’ Iq Ia θ Id o Consider triangles abd and obe Angle dab=θ.

E f Vt I a ra jI a X q I d ( X d X q ) .....The δ can also be calculated from Δoeb θ...Ef’ bc bd dc I a X q sin( ) I d X d Id X q Id X d I d ( X q X d ) =Negative o So Ef’ >Ef Phasor diagram is not correct.bc eb ea ab tan oe oe'e' e Vt sin I a X q Vt cos I a ra ..... (3) ...(2) Now obtain Ef .δ jI aX d a Iara a’ jIdXd Vt c Efb jIqXq Ef’ e δ e’ Iq Ia θ Id Ef =Ef ’.

so must be reactive drop IaX Consider Δ oab and bcd bcd =θ-δ bc=IaX cd=bc cos(θ-δ) =IaX cos(θ-δ) IqXq =IqX Xq =X…………(1) X jI a Now consider the phasor diagram of salient pole syn MOTOR at lagging power factor.a a t Extend Ia line bc is perpendicular to Ia. V b Ef’ Ef e δ Iq θ o a Ia Id . θ-δ Iara jIqXq d First draw a perpendicular line c jIdXd from base of I r for MOTOR.

jIaXq c jIdXd V t =[Mag] δ Thus δ is calculated b Ef’ Ef e The δ can also be calculated from Δoab δ a’ ab ac bc a tan Iq θ oa oa 'aa ' Ia Vt sin I a X q .(2) Id Vt cos I a ra o .Iara.X jI a Now consider the phasor diagram of salient pole syn MOTOR at lagging power factor.. θ-δ Iara jIqXq d Ef’= Vt..........

I d X d I a X q sin( ) t Id X d Id X q I d ( X d X q ) =Positive Ef’ >Ef Phasor diagram is correct.be E f Vt I a ra jI a X q I d ( X d X q ) . X jI a Now consider the phasor diagram of salient pole syn MOTOR at lagging power factor...Ef jIqXq d be de db c jIdXd V b Ef’ Ef e δ Iq θ Ef =Ef ’. θ-δ Iara Now obtain Ef’. (3) o a Ia Id a’ .

so must be reactive drop IaX From base of Iara. and extend Ia line bc is perpendicular to Ia. be=bc cos(θ+δ) =IaX cos(θ+δ) IqXq=IqX Xq =X…………(1) jIqXq d jIdXd c Ef Iara Ef’ Ij aX θ+δ a’ Vt b e a δ Iq Ia θ Id o .draw perpendicular line on od Consider Δ bce and oac cbe =θ+δ bc=IaX. First draw a perpendicular line from base of Iara for MOTOR.Now consider the phasor diagram of salient pole syn MOTOR at leading power factor.

...... jIqXq d Ef’= Vt.jIaXq jIdXd c Ef =[Mag] δ Iara Ef’ Ij aX θ+δ Thus δ is calculated a’ Vt b e The δ can also be calculated from Δoac a δ ac ab bc tan Iq I a θ oa oa 'aa ' Vt sin I a X q Vt cos I a ra ..(2) Id o ..Iara..Now consider the phasor diagram of salient pole syn MOTOR at leading power factor..

Iq Ia θ Ef =Ef ’+cd o Id E V I r jI X I ( X X ) .Now consider the phasor diagram of salient pole syn MOTOR at leading power factor. jIqXq d jIdXd c Ef I d X d I a X q sin( ) Iara Ef’ Ij aX Id X d Id X q θ+δ a’ Vt b e I d ( X d X q ) =Positive a δ Ef >Ef ’ Phasor diagram is correct..Ef’ cd de ce f t a a a q d d q . (3) Now obtain Ef ..

8 lagging and (b) 0. when the generator is delivering rated kVA at rated voltage and at power factor of (a) 0.2. Xq=0. ra=0.025 Compute the excitation voltage Ef on a per unit basis.Example A salient pole synchronous generator has the following per unit parameters: Xd=1.8 leading .8.

015) . Vt =Rated voltage Vt =1.00+j0.j0.25) =(0.j0.8 .9 For 0.6)(0.00 -36.8 .6 Iara =(0.8 pf lagging =0. Ia= Rated value Ia =1.Solution The voltage equation for salient pole syn generator is: Ef is always Ef=Vt +Iara +jIdXd +jIqXq jIqXq along q axis First calculate δ Ef jIdXd Ef’=Vt +Iara +jIaXq Vt Iq Iara δ θ Ia Id (a) With Vt as a reference phasor.00 For rated kVA.j0.02 .

48 +j0.52 Id = Iasin(δ+θ) = 1.j0.625 = 1.8) = (0.64) = 1.62 δ=22.00)+ (0.620 and δ+θ=22. 625 22.02 .j0.6)(0.015)+ (0.00 sin(59.64) Ef jIqXq jIdXd Vt Iq Iara δ θ Ia Id Ef’=Vt +Iara +jIaXq =(1. 5 +j0.9=59.48 +j0.507 .52) =0.Solution jIaXq = j(0.8 .62+36.862 Iq = Iacos(δ+θ) =0.00+j0.

64 Ef’=Vt +Iara +jIaXq 0 50.48+ j0.849 δ= 50.500 δ-θ=13.015 jIaXq=-0.6 Id=0.9698 22.655=0.9 Ia=0.6 Iara=0.8 + j0.549+j0.Ef Ef’ Iq jIqXq jIdXd jIa X q δ Vt Iara Ia θ Id Ef= Ef’ +Id (Xd-Xq) = 1.50 =0.943 .02 + j0.62 (b) Phasor diagram for leading pf θ=+36.50 = 0.235 Ef= Ef’ +Id (Xd-Xq) 0 50.

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