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Chapter 7

Medical Imaging

Medical Ultrasonography Ultrasound: Acoustical waves above the range of human hearing < 20 Hz  Infrasonic 20 Hz ~ 20 kHz  Audible > 20 kHz  Ultrasonic 1 MHz (deep organ) ~ 15 MHz (surface) is used for medical ultrasound Nominal frequency is 3. etc .5 MHz Sound wave behaves like light wave Reflection Refraction Diffraction Piezoelectric transducer: Mechanical vibrations are produced when electric voltage is applied along specified direction. Converse is also true. Quartz Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) Sodium Potassium titrate (Rochelle salt) Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate Zinc oxide.

0004 Bone 1.06 1570 1.70 Fat 0.97 1490 1.85 3360 7.40 Blood 1.001 330 0.50 Water ~0.98 1500 1. Density (gm/cm3) Velocity (m/s) Acoustic Impedance Air 0.80 Muscle 1.93 1480 1.48 Soft tissue ~ 0.00 1560 1.60 Material 106 (Rayl) .Basics of USG Transmission velocity of ultrasound is different in different organ Waves encounter regions of non-homogeneities and partially reflected (echo). Reflected waves provide information on the internal structural details of the medium (organ).

A scan with successive looks at the target created by scanning the time base vertically. .Scanning Modes A Scan: amplitude of the signal B Scan: brightness for signal amplitude Modified B Scan  transducer is fixed arrayed. source is moved back and forth M Scan: Motional objects (heart). Displays as brightness.

31 P have I = ½ . The resultant magnetic vector lies along the axis of precession. individual spin and magnetic moments cancel each other  Nuclei with even mass but odd charge (odd P + odd N) have I = integral of basic moment  Nuclei with odd mass (odd P + even N) have I = ½ basic moment (1H. C: 6P+6N) have spin moment I = 0. 23Na. 13C. 39K have I = ½ 3) Third category of materials behave like tiny bar magnets under the influence of magnetic filed.Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI units use relatively strong magnetic fields to determine the distribution of hydrogen nuclei in human body to visualize anatomic structure of organ Images in slices of 2 ~ 10 mm thick in transverse. 35Cl. sagittal and coronal planes MRI depends on magnetic spin properties of atomic nuclei  Nuclei with even number of nuclei (He: 2P+2N. . Nuclei get oriented parallel or anti parallel to the direction of magnetic field.

½ Hydrogen nuclei is most suitable due to high concentration in the body Energy of interaction between applied magnetic filed (B 0) and nuclear magnetic moment (μ) is E = .MRI Magnetic moments has 2 states: α state: M1 = ½ β state: M1 = .μB0 = .γhM1B0/2π γ  nuclear gyromagnetic ratio Nuclear transitions occur for resonance absorption at resonant frequency (called Larmor frequency) ω0 = γB0 .

MRI Instrumentation Image Production .

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