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The Cell Cycle

&
Cell Division

Cell Cycle

Some cells divide constantly: cells in the embryo, skin
cells, gut lining cells, etc. Other cells divide rarely or
never: only to replace themselves.

Actively dividing cells go through a cycle of events that
results in mitosis.
Most of the cycle was called
“interphase” by the microscopists who first studied cell
division. During interphase the cell increases in size,
but the chromosomes are invisible.

The 3 stages of interphase are called G1, S, and G2.

The S phase (“Synthesis”) is the time when the DNA is
replicated, when the chromosome goes from having one
chromatid to having 2 chromatids held together at the
centromere.

G1 (“Gap”) is the period between mitosis and S, when
each chromosome has 1 chromatid. Cells spend mostly
of their time in G1: it is the time when the cell grows and
performs its normal function. Control of cell division
occurs in G1: a cell that isn’t destined to divide stays in
G1, while a cell that is to divide enters the S phase.

G2 is the period between S and mitosis.
The
chromosome have 2 chromatids, and the cell is getting
ready to divide.

Functions of Cell Division
100 µm

(a) Reproduction. An amoeba,
a single-celled eukaryote, is
dividing into two cells. Each
new cell will be an individual
organism (LM).

200 µm

20 µm

(b) Growth and development.
(c) Tissue renewal. These dividing
This micrograph shows a
bone marrow cells (arrow) will
sand dollar embryo shortly after
give rise to new blood cells (LM).
the fertilized egg divided, forming
two cells (LM).

MITOSIS .

. The daughter cells are identical to one another and to the original parent cell.Mitosis The process of cell division which results in the production of two daughter cells from a single parent cell.

Mitosis can be divided into stages • Interphase • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase & Cytokinesis .

Interphase The cell prepares for division • Animal Cell – DNA replicated – Organelles replicated – Cell increases in size • Plant Cell – DNA replicated – Organelles replicated – Cell increases in size .

Prophase The cell prepares for nuclear division • Animal Cell – Packages DNA into chromosomes • Plant cell – Packages DNA into chromosomes .

Metaphase The cell prepares chromosomes for division • Animal Cell – Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell – Spindle fibers attach from daughter cells to chromosomes at the centromere • Plant Cell – Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell – Spindle fibers attach from daughter cells to chromosomes at the centromere .

Anaphase The chromosomes divide • Animal Cell – Spindle fibers pull chromosomes apart – ½ of each chromosome (called chromotid) moves to each daughter cell • Plant Cell – Spindle fibers pull chromosomes apart – ½ of each chromosome (called chromotid) moves to each daughter cell .

Telophase The cytoplasm divides • Animal Cell – DNA spreads out – 2 nuclei form – Cell wall pinches in to form the 2 new daughter cells • Plant Cell – DNA spreads out – 2 nuclei form – New cell wall forms between to nuclei to form the 2 new daughter cells .

Animal Mitosis -.Review Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Interphase .

Review Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Interphase .Plant Mitosis -.

MEIOSIS .

One parent cell produces four daughter cells. DNA replicates once. Daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes found in the original parent cell During meiosis. but the nucleus divides twice. . Four stages can be described for each division of the nucleus.Meiosis Meiosis is the type of cell division by which germ cells (eggs and sperm) are produced.

Meiosis I First division of meiosis .

• Anaphase 1: Chromosome pairs separate with sister chromatids remaining together. • Telophase 1: Two daughter cells are formed with each daughter containing only one chromosome of the chromosome pair. . • Metaphase 1: Chromosomes align at the center of the cell.First Division of Meiosis • Prophase 1: Each chromosome duplicates and remains closely associated. These are called sister chromatids.

Prophase I .

Prophase I .

Metaphase I .

Telophase I .

Meiosis Second Division of Meiosis .

• Metaphase 2: Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell • Anaphase 2: Centromeres divide and sister chromatids move separately to each pole. . • Telophase 2: Cell division is complete. Four haploid daughter cells are formed.Second Division of Meiosis • Prophase 2: DNA does not replicate.

Prophase II .

Metaphase II .

Telophase II .

Meiosis . .

Differences in Mitosis & Meiosis • Mitosis – – – – Asexual Cell divides once Two daughter cells Genetic information is identical • Meiosis – Sexual – Cell divides twice – Four haploid daughter cells – Genetic information is different .

A Comparison Of Mitosis And Meiosis MITOSIS MEIOSIS Chiasma (site of crossing over) Parent cell (before chromosome replication) MEIOSIS I Prophase I Prophase Chromosome replication Duplicated chromosome (two sister chromatids) Chromosome replication Metaphase Chromosomes positioned at the metaphase plate Anaphase Telophase Sister chromatids separate during anaphase 2n Tetrad formed by synapsis of homologous chromosomes 2n = 6 Daughter cells of mitosis Tetrads positioned at the metaphase plate Homologues separate during anaphase I. sister chromatids remain together Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Haploid n=3 Daughter cells of meiosis I 2n MEIOSIS II n n n n Daughter cells of meiosis II Sister chromatids separate during anaphase II .

Comparison • Meiosis • • • • • DNA duplication followed by 2 cell divisions Sysnapsis Crossing-over One diploid cell produces 4 haploid cells Each new cell has a unique combination of genes • • • • • Mitosis Homologous chromosomes do not pair up No genetic exchange between homologous chromosomes One diploid cell produces 2 diploid cells or one haploid cell produces 2 haploid cells New cells are genetically identical to original cell (except for mutation) .