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Well Drilling

Lesson 36

Torque and Drag Calculations

1

Friction

Logging

Hook Load

Lateral Load

Torque Requirements

Examples

2

Assignments:

PETE 411 Design Project

due December 9, 2002, 5 p.m.

Friction - Stationary

Horizontal surface

No motion

No applied force

Fy = 0

N=W

W

N= Normal force = lateral load = contact force = reaction force

4

Sliding Motion

N

Horizontal surface

Velocity, V > 0

V = constant

N=W

F = N = W

5

1. Consider

a section

of pipe

in the

wellbore.

pipe are buoyed weight, axial tension and the reaction

force, N, normal to the wellbore.

6

F 0

along wellbore :

T W cos I

(1)

F 0

ar to wellbore :

N W sin I

(2)

2. Consider Effect of Friction ( no doglegs):

Frictional Force, F = N = W sin I

where 0 < < 1 ( is the coeff. of friction)

usually 0.15 < < 0.4 in the wellbore

(a) Lowering: Friction opposes motion, so

T W cos I Ff

T W cos I W sin I

(3)

9

so

T W cos I Ff

T W cos I W sin I

(4)

10

Problem 1

angle) that can be logged

without the aid of drillpipe, coiled tubing or

other tubulars?

(assume =0.4)

11

Solution

T W cos I W sin I

(3)

T 0

12

Solution

cot I 0.4

or tan I 2.5

I 68.2

(inclination) that can be logged

without the aid of tubulars.

Note:

cot I

13

Problem 2

Consider a well with a long horizontal section. An

8,000-ft long string of 7 OD csg. is in the hole.

Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbs/ft.

= 0.3

(a) What force will it take to move this pipe

along the horizontal section of the wellbore?

(b) What torque will it take to rotate this pipe?

14

(a) What force will it take to move this pipe along

the horizontal section of the wellbore?

F=?

F=0

W

N = W = 30 lb/ft * 8,000 ft = 240,000 lb

F = N = 0.3 * 240,000 lb = 72,000 lb

15

(b) What torque will it take to rotate this pipe?

As an approximation, let us

assume that the pipe lies on

the bottom of the wellbore.

T

d/2

Then, as before,

N = W = 30 lb/ft * 8,000 ft = 240,000 lbf

16

F = N

N=W

T=F*s

( s=d/24 )

Torque,

F = W

T = Wd/(24 )

= 72,000 lbf

= 21,000 ft-lbf

17

Horizontal - Torque

A more accurate equation for torque in a horizontal

wellbore may be obtained by taking into consideration

the fact that a rotating pipe will ride up the side of the

wellbore to some angle .

Taking moments about the point P:

Torque, T = W * (d/2) sin in-lbf

T

d/2

F

P

W

18

Problem 3

A well with a measured depth of 10,000 ft. may be

approximated as being perfectly vertical to the kick-off

point at 2,000 ft. A string of 7 OD csg. is in the hole;

total length is 10,000 ft. The 8,000-ft segment is inclined at

60 deg. Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbs/ft. = 0.3

19

Problem 3

Please determine the following:

(a) Hook load when rotating off bottom

(b) Hook load when RIH

(c) Hook load when POH

(d) Torque when rotating off bottom

[ ignore effects of dogleg at 2000 ft.]

20

Solution to Problem 3

(a) Hook load when rotating off bottom:

21

HL HL 2000 HL8000

0. 5

lb

lb

ft

ft

HL 180,000 lbf

22

2 (b) Hook load when RIH:

The hook load is decreased by friction in the

wellbore.

Ff N

oo

N 30 * 2000 * sin o0 0

Thus,

F2000 0

23

In the inclined section,

N = 30 * 8,000 * sin 60

= 207,846 lbf

24

Thus, F8000 = N

= 0.3 * 207,846 = 62,352 lbf

HL = We,2000 + We,8000 - F2000 - F8000

= 60,000 + 120,000 - 0 - 62,354

HL = 117,646 lbf

while RIH

25

2(c) Hood Load when POH:

HL = We,2000 + We,8000 + F2000 + F8000

= 60,000 + 120,000 + 0 + 62,354

HL = 242,354 lbf

POH

26

RIH

ROT

POH

MD

ft

27

2(d) Torque when rotating off bottom:

In the Inclined Section:

N W sin I

F N

Torque

Force * Arm

d

Ff *

2

28

(i) As a first approximation, assume the pipe

lies at lowest point of hole:

d

d

d

Torque Ff N W sin I

2

2

2

7 1

0.3 * 30 * 8000 * sin 60 *

*

2 12

29

(ii) More accurate evaluation:

Note that, in the above figure, forces are not balanced;

there is no force to balance the friction force Ff.

The pipe will tend

to climb up the

side of the

wellboreas it

rotates

30

Assume Equilibrium

at angle as shown.

Along Tangent

0 Ff W sin I sin

(6)

N W sin I sin

Perpend. to Tangent

0 N W sin I cos

N W sin I cos

(7)

31

N W sin I sin

Solving equations (6) & (7)

N W sin I cos

tan

1

tan ( )

(8)

32

(ii) continued

Taking moments about the center of the pipe:

d

T Ff *

2

Evaluating the problem at hand:

1

1

tan

(

tan

(0.3)

From Eq. (8),

16.70

33

Evaluating the problem at hand:

From Eq. (6), Ff W sin I sin

Ff 59.724 lbf

34

Evaluating the problem at hand:

d

From Eq. (9), T Ff *

2

7 1

59,724 * *

2 12

Torque 17,420 ft - lbf

35

Solution to Problem 3

2 (d) (ii) Alternate Solution:

36

Solution to Problem 3

Taking moments about tangent point,

d

T W sin I sin

2

7

30 * 8000 * sin60 * sin 16.70 *

24

T 17,420 ft - lbf

37

Solution to Problem 3

by a factor of cos

(i) T = 18,187

(ii) T = 17,420

cos = cos 16.70 = 0.9578

38

Effect of Doglegs

(1) Dropoff Wellbore

dogleg angle

39

Effect of Doglegs

A. Neglecting Axial Friction

(e.g. pipe rotating)

sinII +

sT sin T sin N 0

WWsin

2

2

2T

N W sin I 2T sin

2

(10)

40

Effect of Doglegs

A. Neglecting Axial Friction

T cos W cos I

2

cos 1

2

(11)

41

Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction (Dropoff Wellbore)

While pipe is rotating

N W sin I 2T sin

2

(10)&(11)

T WcosI

42

Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction

While lowering pipe (RIH)

N W sin I 2T sin

2

(as above)

T W cos I N

2

43

Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction

While raising pipe (POH)

T W cos I N

2

d

d

Torque N ( W sin I 2T sin )

2

2

2

(13)

(14)

44

Effect of Doglegs

(2) Buildup Wellbore

dogleg angle

45

Effect of Doglegs

A. Neglecting Friction

(e.g. pipe rotating)

2

2

N W sin I 2T sin

2

46

Effect of Doglegs

A. Neglecting Axial Friction

T cos W cos I

2

cos 1

2

(16)

47

Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction (Buildup Wellbore)

When pipe is rotating

N W sin I 2T sin

2

(15)&(16)

T WcosI

48

Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction

While lowering pipe (RIH)

N W sin I 2T sin

2

(15)

T W cos I N

2

(17)

49

Effect of Doglegs

While raising pipe (POH)

T W cos I N

2

(18)

d

d

Torque N W sin I 2T sin

2

2

2

(19)

50

In a section of our well, hole angle drops at the

rate of 8 degrees per 100 ft.

The axial tension is 100,000 lbf at the location

where the hole angle is 60 degrees.

Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbm/ft

= 0.25

51

Problem

#4

- Curved

Wellbore

with

Friction

T = 100,000 lbf

52

(a) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft. up the hole

if the pipe is rotating?

(b) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft up the hole

if the pipe is being lowered into the hole?

(c) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft up the hole if

the pipe is being pulled out of the hole?

(d) What is the lateral load on a centralizer at incl.=64 if

53

Axial tension 100 ft up hole when pipe is rotating :

IAVG

60 68

IAVG 64

neglected.

54

From equation (11),

T W cos I

lb

30 *100ft * cos 64

ft

1,315 lbf

T68 100,000 1,315

rotating

55

Solution 4 (b)

(b) Tension in pipe 100 ft Up-Hole when Pipe is being

lowered:

From equation (10):

N W sin I 2T sin

2

N 30 *100 * sin 64 2 *100,000 * sin 4

2,696 13,951

N 16,648 lbf

56

Solution 4 (b)

From equation 10,

Ff 4,162 lbf

From equation 12,

T W cos I N

57

From equation 12,

-2,847

(T T)

T60 = 100,000 lbf

58

Solution 4 (c)

(c) Tension in Pipe 100 ft Up-Hole when pipe is being

raised:

From equation (10),

N W sin I 2T sin

2

N 30 *100 * sin 64 2 *100,000 * sin 4

2,696 13,951

N 16,648 lbf

59

Solution 4 (c)

Ff 4,162 lbf

From equation 12,

T W cos I N

60

T68 = 105,477 lbf

5477 lbf

T68 100,000 5477 (T T)

61

SUMMARY

T60

T68

Rot

100,000

101,315

RIH

100,000

97,153

POH

100,000

104,477

62

Solution 4 (d)

(d) Lateral load on centralizer if spacing = 40 ft. (after

pipe has been rotated):

From above,

at 64

N 16,648 lbf

63

Solution 4 (d)

for 40 ft distance,

N centr.

40

16,648 *

100

6,659 lbf

lb

Note : 40 ft of pipe * 30 1200 lbf

ft

64

Alternate Approach

(d) Lateral load on centralizer if spacing = 40 ft.

(after pipe has been rotated)

From above, at 60 , T 100,000 lbf

From above, at 68 , T 101,315 lbf

So, 30 ft up-hole,

T 100,395 lbf

65

Alternate Approach

2

N 30 * 40 * sin 64 2 *100,395 * sin(1.6 )

{4 * 40/100}

1,079 5,606

N 6,685 lbf

66

Centralizer

67

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