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PETE 411

Well Drilling

Lesson 36
Torque and Drag Calculations
1

Torque and Drag Calculations


Friction
Logging
Hook Load
Lateral Load
Torque Requirements
Examples
2

Assignments:
PETE 411 Design Project
due December 9, 2002, 5 p.m.

HW#18 Due Friday, Dec. 6

Friction - Stationary
Horizontal surface

No motion
No applied force

Fy = 0
N=W
W
N= Normal force = lateral load = contact force = reaction force
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Sliding Motion
N

Horizontal surface
Velocity, V > 0
V = constant

Force along surface


N=W

F = N = W
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Frictionless, Inclined, Straight Wellbore:


1. Consider
a section
of pipe
in the
wellbore.

In the absence of FRICTION the forces acting on the


pipe are buoyed weight, axial tension and the reaction
force, N, normal to the wellbore.
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Frictionless, Inclined, Straight Wellbore:

F 0

along wellbore :

T W cos I

(1)

F 0

ar to wellbore :

N W sin I

(2)

These equations are used for ROTATING pipe.

Effect of Friction (no doglegs):


2. Consider Effect of Friction ( no doglegs):

Effect of Friction (no doglegs):


Frictional Force, F = N = W sin I
where 0 < < 1 ( is the coeff. of friction)
usually 0.15 < < 0.4 in the wellbore
(a) Lowering: Friction opposes motion, so

T W cos I Ff
T W cos I W sin I

(3)
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Effect of Friction (no doglegs):

(b) Raising: Friction still opposes motion,


so

T W cos I Ff
T W cos I W sin I

(4)

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Problem 1

What is the maximum hole angle (inclination


angle) that can be logged
without the aid of drillpipe, coiled tubing or
other tubulars?
(assume =0.4)

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Solution

From Equation (3) above,


T W cos I W sin I

(3)

When pipe is barely sliding down the wellbore,


T 0

0 W cos I 0.4 W sin I


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Solution
cot I 0.4

or tan I 2.5
I 68.2

This is the maximum hole angle


(inclination) that can be logged
without the aid of tubulars.
Note:

cot I
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Problem 2
Consider a well with a long horizontal section. An
8,000-ft long string of 7 OD csg. is in the hole.
Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbs/ft.
= 0.3
(a) What force will it take to move this pipe
along the horizontal section of the wellbore?
(b) What torque will it take to rotate this pipe?

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Problem 2 - Solution - Force


(a) What force will it take to move this pipe along
the horizontal section of the wellbore?
F=?

F=0

W
N = W = 30 lb/ft * 8,000 ft = 240,000 lb
F = N = 0.3 * 240,000 lb = 72,000 lb

Force to move pipe, F = 72,000 lbf


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Problem 2 - Solution - Force


(b) What torque will it take to rotate this pipe?
As an approximation, let us
assume that the pipe lies on
the bottom of the wellbore.

T
d/2

Then, as before,
N = W = 30 lb/ft * 8,000 ft = 240,000 lbf

Torque = F*d/2 = Nd/2 = 0.3 * 240,000 lbf * 7/(2 * 12) ft

Torque to rotate pipe, T = 21,000 ft-lbf


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Problem 2 - Equations Horizontal


F = N

N=W

T=F*s
( s=d/24 )

Force to move pipe,


Torque,

F = W

T = Wd/(24 )

= 72,000 lbf

= 21,000 ft-lbf

An approximate equation, with W in lbf and d in inches


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Horizontal - Torque
A more accurate equation for torque in a horizontal
wellbore may be obtained by taking into consideration
the fact that a rotating pipe will ride up the side of the
wellbore to some angle .
Taking moments about the point P:
Torque, T = W * (d/2) sin in-lbf

T
d/2

Where = atan = atan 0.3 = 16.70

T = 240,000 * 7/24 * 0.2873 = 20,111 ft-lbf

F
P

W
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Problem 3
A well with a measured depth of 10,000 ft. may be
approximated as being perfectly vertical to the kick-off
point at 2,000 ft. A string of 7 OD csg. is in the hole;
total length is 10,000 ft. The 8,000-ft segment is inclined at
60 deg. Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbs/ft. = 0.3

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Problem 3
Please determine the following:
(a) Hook load when rotating off bottom
(b) Hook load when RIH
(c) Hook load when POH
(d) Torque when rotating off bottom
[ ignore effects of dogleg at 2000 ft.]
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Solution to Problem 3
(a) Hook load when rotating off bottom:

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Solution to Problem 3 - Rotating

HL HL 2000 HL8000
0. 5

lb
lb

30 * 2000 ft 30 * 8000 ft * cos 60


ft
ft

60,000 lbf 120,000 lbf

HL 180,000 lbf

When rotating off bottom.


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Solution to Problem 3 - lowering


2 (b) Hook load when RIH:
The hook load is decreased by friction in the
wellbore.

Ff N

In the vertical portion,


oo

N 30 * 2000 * sin o0 0
Thus,

F2000 0
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Solution to Problem 3 - lowering


In the inclined section,
N = 30 * 8,000 * sin 60
= 207,846 lbf

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Solution to Problem 3 - Lowering


Thus, F8000 = N
= 0.3 * 207,846 = 62,352 lbf
HL = We,2000 + We,8000 - F2000 - F8000
= 60,000 + 120,000 - 0 - 62,354
HL = 117,646 lbf

while RIH
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Solution to Problem 3 - Raising


2(c) Hood Load when POH:
HL = We,2000 + We,8000 + F2000 + F8000
= 60,000 + 120,000 + 0 + 62,354
HL = 242,354 lbf

POH
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Solution to Problem 3 - Summary

RIH

ROT
POH

MD
ft


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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating


2(d) Torque when rotating off bottom:
In the Inclined Section:

N W sin I
F N

Torque
Force * Arm
d
Ff *
2

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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating


(i) As a first approximation, assume the pipe
lies at lowest point of hole:
d
d
d
Torque Ff N W sin I
2
2
2
7 1
0.3 * 30 * 8000 * sin 60 *
*
2 12

Torque 18,187 ft - lbf


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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating


(ii) More accurate evaluation:
Note that, in the above figure, forces are not balanced;
there is no force to balance the friction force Ff.
The pipe will tend
to climb up the
side of the
wellboreas it
rotates

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Solution to Problem 3 - Rotating


Assume Equilibrium
at angle as shown.

Along Tangent

0 Ff W sin I sin
(6)
N W sin I sin

Perpend. to Tangent

0 N W sin I cos

N W sin I cos

(7)
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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

N W sin I sin
Solving equations (6) & (7)

N W sin I cos
tan
1

tan ( )

(8)

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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating


(ii) continued
Taking moments about the center of the pipe:
d
T Ff *
2
Evaluating the problem at hand:
1
1

tan
(

tan
(0.3)
From Eq. (8),

16.70

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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating


Evaluating the problem at hand:
From Eq. (6), Ff W sin I sin

30 * 8000 * sin60 * sin 16.70


Ff 59.724 lbf

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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating


Evaluating the problem at hand:
d
From Eq. (9), T Ff *
2
7 1
59,724 * *
2 12
Torque 17,420 ft - lbf
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Solution to Problem 3
2 (d) (ii) Alternate Solution:

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Solution to Problem 3
Taking moments about tangent point,

d
T W sin I sin
2
7
30 * 8000 * sin60 * sin 16.70 *
24

T 17,420 ft - lbf
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Solution to Problem 3

Note that the answers in parts (i) & (ii) differ


by a factor of cos
(i) T = 18,187
(ii) T = 17,420
cos = cos 16.70 = 0.9578
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Effect of Doglegs
(1) Dropoff Wellbore

dogleg angle

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Effect of Doglegs
A. Neglecting Axial Friction
(e.g. pipe rotating)

Falong normal : W sin I (T T) sin 2 T sin 2 N 0

sinII +
sT sin T sin N 0
WWsin
2
2
2T

N W sin I 2T sin
2

(10)
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Effect of Doglegs
A. Neglecting Axial Friction

Falong tangent : (T T) cos 2 W cos I T cos 2 0

T cos W cos I
2

cos 1
2

(11)
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Effect of Doglegs
B. Including Friction (Dropoff Wellbore)
While pipe is rotating

N W sin I 2T sin
2

(10)&(11)

T WcosI
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Effect of Doglegs
B. Including Friction
While lowering pipe (RIH)

N W sin I 2T sin
2

(as above)

T W cos I N

i.e. T W cos I ( W sin I 2T sin ) (12)


2

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Effect of Doglegs
B. Including Friction
While raising pipe (POH)
T W cos I N

T W cos I ( W sin I 2T sin )


2

d
d
Torque N ( W sin I 2T sin )
2
2
2

(13)

(14)
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Effect of Doglegs
(2) Buildup Wellbore

dogleg angle

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Effect of Doglegs
A. Neglecting Friction
(e.g. pipe rotating)

Falong normal : W sinI T T sin 2 T sin 2 N 0

W sin I 2T sin T sin N 0


2
2

N W sin I 2T sin
2
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Effect of Doglegs
A. Neglecting Axial Friction

Falong tangent : (T T) cos 2 W cos I T cos 2 0

T cos W cos I
2

cos 1
2

(16)
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Effect of Doglegs
B. Including Friction (Buildup Wellbore)
When pipe is rotating

N W sin I 2T sin
2

(15)&(16)

T WcosI
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Effect of Doglegs
B. Including Friction
While lowering pipe (RIH)

N W sin I 2T sin
2

(15)

T W cos I N

T W cos I W sin I 2T sin


2

(17)
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Effect of Doglegs
While raising pipe (POH)
T W cos I N

i.e. T WcosI WsinI - 2Tsin


2

(18)

d
d
Torque N W sin I 2T sin
2
2
2

(19)
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Problem #4 - Curved Wellbore with Friction


In a section of our well, hole angle drops at the
rate of 8 degrees per 100 ft.
The axial tension is 100,000 lbf at the location
where the hole angle is 60 degrees.
Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbm/ft

= 0.25
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Problem
#4
- Curved
Wellbore
with
Friction
T = 100,000 lbf
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Evaluate the Following:


(a) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft. up the hole
if the pipe is rotating?
(b) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft up the hole
if the pipe is being lowered into the hole?
(c) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft up the hole if
the pipe is being pulled out of the hole?
(d) What is the lateral load on a centralizer at incl.=64 if

the centralizer spacing is 40 ft?


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Solution 4(a) - Rotating


Axial tension 100 ft up hole when pipe is rotating :

IAVG

60 68

IAVG 64

Pipe is rotating so frictional effect on axial load may be


neglected.
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Solution 4(a) - Rotating


From equation (11),

T68 = 101,315 lbf

T W cos I
lb
30 *100ft * cos 64
ft
1,315 lbf
T68 100,000 1,315

T68 101,315 lbf

T60 = 100,000 lbf

rotating
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Solution 4 (b)
(b) Tension in pipe 100 ft Up-Hole when Pipe is being
lowered:
From equation (10):

N W sin I 2T sin
2
N 30 *100 * sin 64 2 *100,000 * sin 4
2,696 13,951
N 16,648 lbf
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Solution 4 (b)
From equation 10,

Friction Force N 0.25 *16,648


Ff 4,162 lbf
From equation 12,

T W cos I N
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Solution 4(b) - Lowering


From equation 12,

T68 = 97,153 lbf

T (30 *100 * cos 64 ) 4,162


-2,847

T68 100,000 2,867

(T T)
T60 = 100,000 lbf

T68 97,153 lbf


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Solution 4 (c)
(c) Tension in Pipe 100 ft Up-Hole when pipe is being
raised:
From equation (10),

N W sin I 2T sin
2
N 30 *100 * sin 64 2 *100,000 * sin 4
2,696 13,951
N 16,648 lbf
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Solution 4 (c)

Friction Force N 0.25 *16,648


Ff 4,162 lbf
From equation 12,

T W cos I N

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Solution 4(c) - Raising


T68 = 105,477 lbf

From equation 12,

T (30 *100 * cos 64 ) 4,162

5477 lbf
T68 100,000 5477 (T T)

T60 = 100,000 lbf

T68 105,477 lbf


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Solution 4(a, b and c)


SUMMARY

T60

T68

Rot

100,000

101,315

RIH

100,000

97,153

POH

100,000

104,477
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Solution 4 (d)
(d) Lateral load on centralizer if spacing = 40 ft. (after
pipe has been rotated):
From above,

at 64
N 16,648 lbf

This is for 100 ft distance


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Solution 4 (d)

for 40 ft distance,

N centr.

40
16,648 *

100
6,659 lbf

i.e., Lateral load on centralizer,

N centr. 6,659 lbf


lb
Note : 40 ft of pipe * 30 1200 lbf
ft
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Alternate Approach
(d) Lateral load on centralizer if spacing = 40 ft.
(after pipe has been rotated)
From above, at 60 , T 100,000 lbf
From above, at 68 , T 101,315 lbf
So, 30 ft up-hole,

T 100,000 1,315 * (30 / 100) lbf


T 100,395 lbf
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Alternate Approach

From Eq. (10), N W sin I 2T sin


2
N 30 * 40 * sin 64 2 *100,395 * sin(1.6 )
{4 * 40/100}
1,079 5,606
N 6,685 lbf

for 40 ft centralizer spacing,

N centr. 6,685 lbf


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Centralizer

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