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LET NO MAN DESPISE THY YOUTH; BUT BE THOU EXAMPLE

OF THE BELIEVERS, IN WORD , IN CONVERSATION, IN


CHARITY, IN SPIRIT, IN FAITH , IN PURITY.
1TIMOTHY 4:12

HEAT
IS A MEASURE OF THE
INTERNAL ENERGY THAT HAS
ABSORBED OR TRANSFERRED
FROM ONE BODY TO ANOTHER.

SOURCES OF HEAT
1.The Sun the main source of heat
2.Interior of the Earth
ex. Hot springs, hot lava of
volcanoes
3. Friction and compression are
sources of heat
4. Electrical Energy
ex. The heat in electric stoves,
electric irons and heaters comes
from electric current.
5. Chemical Energy

The Sun is the main source of heat.


The heat that comes from it makes it
possible for plants and animals to live.
It helps dry clothes , burn wood and
manufacture products such as salt.
It has been calculated that Earth
absorbs 5x10-17 calories (cal) of heat
or only two billionths of all the heat
given off by the sun.

HEAT TRANSFER

Heat always moves from a


warmer place to a cooler
place.
1. CONDUTION the transfer
of heat energy from
molecules to molecules.
Transfer of heat is
through a solid by being
passed from one particle
to the next .

HEAT TRANSFER

If a substance easily allows heat


to move through it, we can say it
is a good conductor of heat.
Example: metals

If a substance does not allow


heat to pass through it easily we
can say it is an Insulator.

Examples: wood, plastic , glass.

HEAT TRANSFER

CONVECTION is the movement


of liquid or gas from colder
region to a warmer region
producing a current.
It is the way in which particles in
a gas or liquid move upwards ,
carrying heat with them.
3. RADIATION A method of
transferring heat through radiant
energy.
Heat from the sun travels
through space by radiation.
2.

EFFECTS OF HEAT
Whenever heat is absorbed by a
body , there is a corresponding
effect absorbed .
The most common absorbable
effects are the rise in
temperature ,increase in size ,
and change in phase.
When heat is evolved by a system
, energy is lost and q is
negative (-)
To give off heat; energy is lost
from the systme: (-q)

EFFECTS OF HEAT

When heat is absorbed by


the system the Energy is
added and q is positive (+)
To absorb heat ; energy is
added to the system: (+q)
ENDOTHERMIC

EFFECTS OF HEAT
INCREASED IN TEMPERATURE
The most immediate effect of heat
absorbed by the body is the increase
in the bodys temperature. This is
caused by the increase in he kinetic
energy of the molecules.
INCREASE IN SIZE
Matter expands when it is heated and
contracts when it is cooled. The
degree of expansion or contraction of
any solid, liquid, or gas depends on the
kind of materials and the amount of
heat absorbed or given off.

EFFECTS OF HEAT

CHANGE IN PHASE
As a materials absorb heat,
the increase in the kinetic
energy of the molecules
causes them to move faster
until they break loose from
the surface.
A cube of ice melts when it
absorbs enough heat. Adding
more heat causes the melted
ice (water) to boil and

THERMAL ENERGY UNIT


TEMPERATURE- Measures
how warm or cold an object is
with respect to some
standard.
THERMOMETRY is the
science which deals with the
measurement of temperature
of matter.
THERMOMETER is the
instrument used in

THERMAL ENERYG UNIT


1.THE CALORIE is the amount of
heat needed to raise the
temperature of one gram of water
to one degree centigrade.
2.THE KILOGRAM CALORIE OR
KILOCALORIE is the amount of
heat needed to raise the
temperature of 1 kilogram of
water one degree centigrade.
- there are 1000 gram calories in
1 kilocalories.
3. Joules 1 cal = 4.184 joules

THERMOMETRIC SCALE

Has two fixed points


1.Freezing point
2.Boiling Point
.On the Celsius Scale, the
freezing point is 0oC and the
boiling point is 100oC.
.The Scale was devised by
Anders Celsius, a Swedish
astronomer (1701-1744)

THERMOMETRIC SCALE

In the United States , the


number 32 represents the
temperature at which water
freezes and the number 212
represents the temperature at
which water boils.
The Fahrenheit thermometer
was named after its
discoverer , German physicist
Daniel Fahrenheit (16861736)

THERMOMETRIC SCALE

KELVIN SCALE named after


the British physicist Lord
Kelvin (1824- 1907)
This scale is calibrated not in
terms of energy itself. At
zero kelvin (0K), which is the
lowest possible temperature
or absolute zero, substance
have no kinetic energy to give
off.
Molecules cease to move at

CONVERSION FORMULA

Converting FAHRENHEIT
(OF) to CELSIUS (OC)
oC = 5/9 (oF 32)
oF = 9/5 (oC) + 32
K= oC + 273
oC =K -273

SAMPLE PROBLEM
1. Liquid helium boils at -452.02 oF. What is its
boiling point on the Kelvin scale?
Given:

F =-452.02

K=?
Solution:
o

= 5/9 (oF 32)


= 5/9 (-452.02 32)
= 5/9 (-484.02)
= -2420.1/9
= -268.9 oC

K = oC + 273
= -268.9 + 273
= 4.1 K

SAMPLE PROBLEM
The temperature of a star is 1273
K. What Is its equivalent
temperature on the Celsius scale?
Given :
K = 1273 K
oC = ?
Solution :
oC = K 273
= 1273 - 273
= 1000 oC
2.

1.Which of the following is not


a method of heat transfer?
a.Radiation
b.Insulation
c.Conduction
d.Convection

1.Which of the following is not


a method of heat transfer?
a.Radiation
b.Insulation
c.Conduction
d.Convection

In which of the following are


the particles closest
together?
a.Solid
b.Liquid
c.Gas
d.Fluid
2.

In which of the following are


the particles closest together?
a.Solid
b.Liquid
c.Gas
d.Fluid

3.How does heat energy reach


the Earth from the Sun?
a.Radiation
b.Conduction
c.Convection
d.Insulation

3.How does heat energy reach


the Earth from the Sun?
a.Radiation
b.Conduction
c.Convection
d.Insulation

Which is the best surface for


reflecting heat radiation?
a.Shiny White
b.Dull White
c.Shiny black
d.Dull black
4.

Which is the best surface for


reflecting heat radiation?
a.Shiny White
b.Dull White
c.Shiny black
d.Dull black

HEAT CAPACITY
Is the quantity of heat necessary to raise
its temperature by 1 oC.
Substance with higher heat capacities
heat up more slowly than those with
lower heat capacities because they
absorb greater amount of heat.
They also cool down at a slower rate.
FORMULA:
Q= MC
T
Where:
m= mass of the substance
c= specific heat of the substance
T= change in temperature

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY


Is the amount of heat necessary to
raise the temp of 1 g of a
substance by one degree unit of
temperature.
Unit: J/g oC
cal/g oC

SPECIFIC HEAT OF SUBSTANCE


SUBSTANCES/ELEMENTS

SPECIFIC HEAT (cal/g oC)

Air

0.24

Aluminum

0.22

Copper

0.093

Glass

0.20

Ice

0.5

Iron

0.11

Lead

0.031

Mercury

0.033

Silver

0.062

Marble

0.21

Ethyl Alcohol

0.57

Wood

0.4

Ammonia

1.025

Water

1.00

Tin

0.056

SAMPLE PROBLEM
1.

How many calories will be given


out by 1 kg of iron at 95oC when it
cools to 15oC?

2. How many calories of heat will be


needed to raise the temperature
of 2 kg of water from 40 oC to its
boiling points? (boiling point of
water = 100oC)