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# LET NO MAN DESPISE THY YOUTH; BUT BE THOU EXAMPLE

## OF THE BELIEVERS, IN WORD , IN CONVERSATION, IN

CHARITY, IN SPIRIT, IN FAITH , IN PURITY.
1TIMOTHY 4:12

HEAT
IS A MEASURE OF THE
INTERNAL ENERGY THAT HAS
ABSORBED OR TRANSFERRED
FROM ONE BODY TO ANOTHER.

SOURCES OF HEAT
1.The Sun the main source of heat
2.Interior of the Earth
ex. Hot springs, hot lava of
volcanoes
3. Friction and compression are
sources of heat
4. Electrical Energy
ex. The heat in electric stoves,
electric irons and heaters comes
from electric current.
5. Chemical Energy

## The Sun is the main source of heat.

The heat that comes from it makes it
possible for plants and animals to live.
It helps dry clothes , burn wood and
manufacture products such as salt.
It has been calculated that Earth
absorbs 5x10-17 calories (cal) of heat
or only two billionths of all the heat
given off by the sun.

HEAT TRANSFER

## Heat always moves from a

warmer place to a cooler
place.
1. CONDUTION the transfer
of heat energy from
molecules to molecules.
Transfer of heat is
through a solid by being
passed from one particle
to the next .

HEAT TRANSFER

## If a substance easily allows heat

to move through it, we can say it
is a good conductor of heat.
Example: metals

## If a substance does not allow

heat to pass through it easily we
can say it is an Insulator.

HEAT TRANSFER

## CONVECTION is the movement

of liquid or gas from colder
region to a warmer region
producing a current.
It is the way in which particles in
a gas or liquid move upwards ,
carrying heat with them.
energy.
Heat from the sun travels
2.

EFFECTS OF HEAT
Whenever heat is absorbed by a
body , there is a corresponding
effect absorbed .
The most common absorbable
effects are the rise in
temperature ,increase in size ,
and change in phase.
When heat is evolved by a system
, energy is lost and q is
negative (-)
To give off heat; energy is lost
from the systme: (-q)

EFFECTS OF HEAT

## When heat is absorbed by

the system the Energy is
added and q is positive (+)
To absorb heat ; energy is
ENDOTHERMIC

EFFECTS OF HEAT
INCREASED IN TEMPERATURE
The most immediate effect of heat
absorbed by the body is the increase
in the bodys temperature. This is
caused by the increase in he kinetic
energy of the molecules.
INCREASE IN SIZE
Matter expands when it is heated and
contracts when it is cooled. The
degree of expansion or contraction of
any solid, liquid, or gas depends on the
kind of materials and the amount of
heat absorbed or given off.

EFFECTS OF HEAT

CHANGE IN PHASE
As a materials absorb heat,
the increase in the kinetic
energy of the molecules
causes them to move faster
until they break loose from
the surface.
A cube of ice melts when it
more heat causes the melted
ice (water) to boil and

## THERMAL ENERGY UNIT

TEMPERATURE- Measures
how warm or cold an object is
with respect to some
standard.
THERMOMETRY is the
science which deals with the
measurement of temperature
of matter.
THERMOMETER is the
instrument used in

## THERMAL ENERYG UNIT

1.THE CALORIE is the amount of
heat needed to raise the
temperature of one gram of water
2.THE KILOGRAM CALORIE OR
KILOCALORIE is the amount of
heat needed to raise the
temperature of 1 kilogram of
- there are 1000 gram calories in
1 kilocalories.
3. Joules 1 cal = 4.184 joules

THERMOMETRIC SCALE

## Has two fixed points

1.Freezing point
2.Boiling Point
.On the Celsius Scale, the
freezing point is 0oC and the
boiling point is 100oC.
.The Scale was devised by
Anders Celsius, a Swedish
astronomer (1701-1744)

THERMOMETRIC SCALE

## In the United States , the

number 32 represents the
temperature at which water
freezes and the number 212
represents the temperature at
which water boils.
The Fahrenheit thermometer
was named after its
discoverer , German physicist
Daniel Fahrenheit (16861736)

THERMOMETRIC SCALE

## KELVIN SCALE named after

the British physicist Lord
Kelvin (1824- 1907)
This scale is calibrated not in
terms of energy itself. At
zero kelvin (0K), which is the
lowest possible temperature
or absolute zero, substance
have no kinetic energy to give
off.
Molecules cease to move at

CONVERSION FORMULA

Converting FAHRENHEIT
(OF) to CELSIUS (OC)
oC = 5/9 (oF 32)
oF = 9/5 (oC) + 32
K= oC + 273
oC =K -273

SAMPLE PROBLEM
1. Liquid helium boils at -452.02 oF. What is its
boiling point on the Kelvin scale?
Given:

F =-452.02

K=?
Solution:
o

## = 5/9 (oF 32)

= 5/9 (-452.02 32)
= 5/9 (-484.02)
= -2420.1/9
= -268.9 oC

K = oC + 273
= -268.9 + 273
= 4.1 K

SAMPLE PROBLEM
The temperature of a star is 1273
K. What Is its equivalent
temperature on the Celsius scale?
Given :
K = 1273 K
oC = ?
Solution :
oC = K 273
= 1273 - 273
= 1000 oC
2.

## 1.Which of the following is not

a method of heat transfer?
b.Insulation
c.Conduction
d.Convection

## 1.Which of the following is not

a method of heat transfer?
b.Insulation
c.Conduction
d.Convection

## In which of the following are

the particles closest
together?
a.Solid
b.Liquid
c.Gas
d.Fluid
2.

## In which of the following are

the particles closest together?
a.Solid
b.Liquid
c.Gas
d.Fluid

## 3.How does heat energy reach

the Earth from the Sun?
b.Conduction
c.Convection
d.Insulation

## 3.How does heat energy reach

the Earth from the Sun?
b.Conduction
c.Convection
d.Insulation

a.Shiny White
b.Dull White
c.Shiny black
d.Dull black
4.

## Which is the best surface for

a.Shiny White
b.Dull White
c.Shiny black
d.Dull black

HEAT CAPACITY
Is the quantity of heat necessary to raise
its temperature by 1 oC.
Substance with higher heat capacities
heat up more slowly than those with
lower heat capacities because they
absorb greater amount of heat.
They also cool down at a slower rate.
FORMULA:
Q= MC
T
Where:
m= mass of the substance
c= specific heat of the substance
T= change in temperature

## SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY

Is the amount of heat necessary to
raise the temp of 1 g of a
substance by one degree unit of
temperature.
Unit: J/g oC
cal/g oC

## SPECIFIC HEAT OF SUBSTANCE

SUBSTANCES/ELEMENTS

Air

0.24

Aluminum

0.22

Copper

0.093

Glass

0.20

Ice

0.5

Iron

0.11

0.031

Mercury

0.033

Silver

0.062

Marble

0.21

Ethyl Alcohol

0.57

Wood

0.4

Ammonia

1.025

Water

1.00

Tin

0.056

SAMPLE PROBLEM
1.

## How many calories will be given

out by 1 kg of iron at 95oC when it
cools to 15oC?

## 2. How many calories of heat will be

needed to raise the temperature
of 2 kg of water from 40 oC to its
boiling points? (boiling point of
water = 100oC)