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P4
Leadership Traits

FOCUS ON THE LEADER

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Five Factor Model of Personality
Five Factor
Dimensions

Traits

Behaviors/Items

Surgency

Dominance
Sociability

I like having responsibility for others.
I have a large group of friends.

Agreeableness

Empathy
Friendly

I am a sympathetic person.
I am usually in good mood.

Dependability

Organization
Credibility
Conformity
Achievement orientation

I usually make “to do” lists.
I practice what I preach.
I rarely get into trouble.
I am a high achiever.

Adjustment

Steadiness
Self-acceptance

I remain calm in pressure situations.
I take personal criticism well.

Intellectance

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I like traveling to foreign countries.

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Inc.The Building Blocks Of Skills Skills/ Competencies Knowledge Intelligence 7-5 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Experience Personality Traits and Preferences Values Interests Motives/Goals Easier to Change More difficult to Change Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved.

.Leadership potential profile 7-6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc. . All rights reserved.Dark-Side Personality Traits • Argumentative (disagree) • Interpersonal insensitivity • Narcissism (habit of always thinking about yourself and admiring yourself) 7-7 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

continued • Fear of failure • Perfectionism • Impulsivity (do things suddenly without thinking about them carefully first) 7-8 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Dark-Side Personality Trait. . Inc. All rights reserved.

7-9 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. emotional outbursts. . All rights reserved. and inability to persist on projects.Dark-Side Personality Trait. Inc. continued • Excitable (nervous) • Leaders with these tendencies have difficulties building teams because of their dramatic mood swings.

continued • Skeptical (doubts) • Leaders with this dark-side trait have an unhealthy mistrust of others. All rights reserved.Dark-Side Personality Trait. Inc. . and are vigilant for signs of disloyalty. are constantly questioning the motives and challenging the integrity of their followers. 7-10 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

All rights reserved. Inc. . they alienate their staffs by not making decisions or taking action on issues. continued • Cautious (warn problem/danger) • Because these leaders are so fearful of making “dumb” mistakes.Dark-Side Personality Trait. 7-11 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

and unconcerned about the welfare of their staffs. 7-12 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. difficult to find.Dark-Side Personality Trait. are uncommunicative. Inc. All rights reserved. . continued • Reserved (hidden) • During times of stress these leaders become extremely withdrawn.

Inc. .Dark-Side Personality Trait. All rights reserved. continued • Leisurely (relaxed/unhurried) • These passive-aggressive leaders will only exert effort in the pursuit of their own agendas and will procrastinate or not follow through with requests that are not in line with their agendas. 7-13 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

All rights reserved. and inability to learn from experience often results in trails of bruised followers. . continued • Bold (not afraid) • Because of their narcissistic tendencies. tendency to blame their mistakes on others. Inc. 7-14 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Dark-Side Personality Trait. inability to share credit for success. But their feelings of entitlement. these leaders often get quite a bit done.

policies. rules. When caught. and laws. . they also believe they can talk their way out of any problem.Dark-Side Personality Trait. 7-15 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. continued • Mischievous (playing harmless tricks) • These leaders tend to be quite charming but take pleasure in seeing if they can get away with breaking commitments. All rights reserved. Inc.

Dark-Side Personality Trait. or get much done. Inc. continued • Colorful (behaves in an interesting and amusing way) • Leaders with this tendency believe they are “hot” and have an unhealthy need to be the center of attention. maintain focus. All rights reserved. . 7-16 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. They are so preoccupied with being noticed that they are unable to share credit.

often changing their minds.Dark-Side Personality Trait. and make strange or odd decisions. as these leaders think in eccentric ways. Inc. . continued • Imaginative (think of or create new or exciting things) • Followers question the judgment of leaders with this tendency. All rights reserved. 7-17 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

7-18 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. these leaders frustrate and disempower their staffs through micro-management. All rights reserved. and an inability to delegate. Inc. . continued • Diligent (works hard) • Because of their perfectionistic tendencies.Dark-Side Personality Trait. poor prioritization.

are unwilling to refuse unrealistic requests. All rights reserved. 7-19 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .Dark-Side Personality Trait. continued • Dutiful (they do everything that they are expected to do) • These leaders deal with stress by sucking up to superiors. won’t stand up for their staffs. and burn them out as a result. They lack spines. Inc.

Inc.Leadership challenge profile 7-20 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. .

Inc. All rights reserved. .Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Four basic preference dimensions in which people can differ: • • • • 7-21 Extraversion-Introversion Sensing-Intuition Thinking-Feeling Judging-Perceiving McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc.The Building Blocks Of Skills Skills/ Competencies Knowledge Intelligence • • • 7-22 Analytic intelligence Synthetic abilities Creative intelligence McGraw-Hill/Irwin Experience Personality Traits and Preferences Values Interests Motives/Goals Easier to Change More difficult to Change Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved.

Inc. . All rights reserved.Average Intelligence Test Scores By Management Level 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 N= 7-23 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Supervisor First-line Manager Middle Manager Executive Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Emotional Intelligence (EQ) A group of mental abilities that help people to recognize their own feelings and those of others .

All rights reserved.Emotional intelligence and the building blocks of skills 7-25 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Inc.

then it is difficult to see how they will change as a result of a training intervention.Limitations Of EQ Literature • Research does not indicate that EQ is more important than intelligence in leadership. All rights reserved. . • Few EQ researchers have acknowledged the existence of personality-leadership effectiveness research. • If the EQ attributes are essentially personality traits. 7-26 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.

Summary • The relationships between personality. • In general. All rights reserved. . but in and of themselves they are no guarantee of leadership success. Inc. intelligence. and emotional intelligence with leadership success was examined. all of these attributes can help a leader to influence a group toward the accomplishment of its goals. 7-27 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

. components of intelligence. or emotional intelligence attributes will positively affect a leader’s ability to influence a group. 7-28 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. All rights reserved.Summary • Oftentimes the situation will dictate which personality traits.

we use the term to describe one’s typical or characteristic patterns of behavior.Summary • Although the term personality has many different meanings. . 7-29 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Inc.

Summary • There are several different theories to describe why people act in characteristic ways. All rights reserved. . Inc. 7-30 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and as such plays a key role in the chapter. but the trait approach to personality has been the most thoroughly researched.

All rights reserved. and researchers have noted that leadership success is positively correlated with the FFM personality dimensions of surgency. 7-31 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and adjustment. .Summary • The adoption of the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality has helped to clarify the personality–leadership relationships. agreeableness. dependability. Inc.

Inc. 7-32 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. .Summary • The FFM comprises the bright side of personality. but there are a number of traits that also constitute the dark side of personality.

7-33 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Inc.Summary • Dark-side personality traits are irritating. counterproductive behaviors that are exhibited during times of stress and interfere with a leader’s ability to build teams or get results through others. .

Summary • Virtually everyone has one or two darkside traits. Inc. 7-34 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. identifying the situations in which they appear. . and developing strategies to manage them. All rights reserved. some of the keys to being a more successful leader is knowing which dark-side traits you possess.

Inc. . All rights reserved. and creative intelligence. practical intelligence. • All three components are interrelated. 7-35 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Summary • The most recent theory for understanding intelligence divides it into three related components: analytic intelligence.

. Inc. and that more intelligent leaders often make better leaders. • Analytic intelligence appears to confer two primary benefits upon leaders. 7-36 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Summary • Most research shows that leaders possess higher levels of analytic intelligence than the general population. All rights reserved.

leaders who are smarter seem to be better problem solvers. • Second. 7-37 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. and perhaps more important. Inc. . smarter leaders seem to profit more from experience.Summary • First.

7-38 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or one’s relevant job knowledge or experience. • Practical intelligence. All rights reserved. is proving to be extremely important for leaders. Inc. .Summary • The roles of practical and creative intelligence in leadership are receiving increasing attention.

All rights reserved. 7-39 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. • Moreover. . practical intelligence seems to be the easiest of the three components to change. Inc.Summary • Leaders with higher levels of practical intelligence seem to be better at solving problems under stress.

Inc. 7-40 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Summary • This implies that leaders should use techniques such as the action-observationreflection model to extract the most learning from their experiences. .

Summary • Creative intelligence involves developing new and useful products and processes. 7-41 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Inc. and creativity is extremely important to the success of many businesses today. All rights reserved.

and several environmental factors. relevant personality traits. practical intelligence. . All rights reserved. Inc.Summary • Creativity consists of seven components. intrinsic motivation. thinking skills. including synthetic abilities. analytic intelligence. 7-42 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

All rights reserved. 7-43 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. even more than being creative themselves. .Summary • Understanding the seven components of creativity is important as the factors can give leaders ideas about how to improve their own and their followers’ creativity. Inc. • It is important that leaders learn how to successfully stimulate and manage creativity.

. Inc. • Generally. 7-44 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. emotional intelligence has to do with understanding and responding to one’s own and others’ emotions.Summary • In some ways emotional intelligence is a relatively new concept. and there are at least four different definitions of emotional intelligence. All rights reserved.

. 7-45 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.Summary • Leaders who can better align their thoughts and feelings with their actions may be more effective than leaders who think and feel one way about something but then do something different about it. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Summary • Although emotional intelligence has helped to point out the role emotions and non-cognitive abilities play in leadership success. . 7-46 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. some of it seems to be nothing more than another label for personality. Inc.

.Summary • If this is the case. then emotional intelligence may be a leadership fad that will fade away over time. Inc. All rights reserved. 7-47 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

.THANK YOU 7-54 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. All rights reserved.