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¢There were originally Twelve Apostles
whom Jesus chose first to preach the gospel
during His earthly ministry.

¢In Matthew 10:1 ff., Mark 3:14 and 6:30, and in Luke
6:13 and 9:1 ff., Jesus commissioned the Twelve to
preach the gospel among the villages during the early
years of His public ministry.

¢ Just before He ascended, Jesus again gave them another
mission, this one life-long: to make disciples of all nations
(Matthew), to preach repentance and forgiveness of sins to
the nations (Luke), to preach the gospel to every creature
(Mark), and to be witnesses of Jesus to the nations (Acts).
¢     "=  =  
  who believed the same gospel about the
same Jesus, and therefore took up the same mission.
Examples would include:
¦ a    in Romans 16:7.
¦ 0.in Acts 14:14 and Galatians 2:1, 9, 13
¦     in 2 Corinthians 8:23 and Philippians 2:25
¦  , by inference, in 1 Corinthians 4:6, 9.
¦ a!, possibly, in 1 Corinthians 15:7
¦ Ú!  %, by inference, in comparing 1
Thessalonians 1:1 with 2:6.
¦ : & .    "   8and ͞the
glory of Christ͟ in 2 Corinthians 8:23.
¦ rurther, the fact that Paul had to denounce certain persons as
͞false apostles, deceitful workers͟ in 2 Corinthians 11:13 shows
that the early church didn͛t think of apostleship as limited to the
original Twelve.
     " 
   ""." "(

¦  %    ""   %    
" %   (They are a larger group of men, intimately
connected personally to a local church, who discharge the authority
of Jesus Christ in the gospel to the lost in order to build them into a
local assembly of their own. This would then be followed by
establishing it with leaders, and strengthening it as necessary.

¦      "        "" ( They
father people in the faith, father a local church, and then relate to that local
church much as a father would an adult child. Once local leadership is
established, they do not interfere with the ordinary day-to-day business and
administration of the local church.

¦  %  "   >" 
there is a request to do so, a special need that cannot be resolved within the
local assembly, a doctrinal error threatens to undermine the gospel, or when
there is rampant sin.
•! •  ? 
 ?   %

¦ It was interesting to me to find in my studies such a
dissonance between the theological dictionaries, lexicons,
and encyclopedias versus the commentaries on Ephesians.
The reference works considered the role of apostles to be
unarguably unlimited to the original Twelve apostles, and
therefore unlimited in its timeframe.

¦ The common misconception, based on Ephesians 2:20, is that since
the foundation of the church is already laid, we have no need for
apostles and prophets any longer. However, the assumption that the
foundation of the church was already laid when the first apostles died
is something one must read into Ephesians 2:20.
•! •  
?   ? 
  %

¦ The Apostle Paul clearly did not
understand the meaning of foundation in
this way. In Romans 15:20, we see that the
focus of his entire life was his ͞ambition to
preach the gospel where Christ was not
known, so that I would not be building one
someone else͛s foundation.͟
•! •  ? 
 ?   %

¦ rrom this verse (Romans 15:20) two things are clearly
evident:

¢  ! .(Paul said that he didn͛t want to build
on ÷  ÷÷ foundation. This implies that there are other builders out
there planting churches. The Great Commission implies that we must always
be out there making disciples and planting churches. Therefore, this
continuing work means continued foundation laying laborers͙hence, apostles
today.

¢Ú  !.! "  (Each ministry effort in which
Paul preached the gospel and planted a church was focused on a city. Each city
where he planted a church, then, would have been considered a part of his
foundation. The Great Commission doesn͛t stop until Jesus comes back.
Therefore, this continuing work means continued foundations.
•! •  ? 
 ?   %

¢ •Ú!!%If the missionary work of church planting is
considered foundation-building, and if that work is to be
ongoing until Jesus comes back, per the Great Commission, then
this is not a process that is complete! There are still churches to
be planted. There are still foundations to be laid. And there are
still men who need to plant those churches and build those
foundations.

¢ The past tense usage of the word ͞built͟ in Ephesians 2:20 is simply a
reference, then, to the fact that the Ephesian church had already been
built on the foundation of apostles and prophets. But since there
were other churches being planted, there were other foundations
being laid there too. What͛s clear then is that each apostle͛s
foundation-building efforts simply represent a part of the greater
foundation of the universal church.
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¢ The NT prophet in the church is one person who would both
receive and communicate a divinely received word from God,
contrary to the Greco-Roman world where the °  ÷
would get the word and the ° ° ÷ would communicate it.

¢ They are somehow overcome with an ability to see or hear
things they would not be able to otherwise, coupled with a
compulsion to speak it to a person or group of persons in
particular. This comes through dreams, visions, or spontaneous
revelation and/or understanding of something God desires His
people to know for their exhortation, comfort, or edification.
¢ The receiving of the revelation, however, was not such
that their own consciousness or individuality or personality
were suppressed, unlike pagan prophecy where a person
went into a trance when receiving a word.

¢ With regard to their own consciousness, ÷
  is the key here.
The Holy Spirit will bring  the prophecy  the self-control to
communicate it and use it properly. The NT Christian prophet can give a
full account of the revelation and how it was received, because he is
conscious of the entire occurrence.

¢ With regard to individuality and personality, the revelation will be experienced in
a shape or manner (colors, numbers, people, etc.) in which each individual person
will understand. Subsequently, they will also communicate the prophetic word
with their own vocabulary and in their own personal effort to simply communicate
what they heard, saw, or understood. "All the more, the form in which the
prophet gives expression to his word of God is determined by his personal talents
and gifts as also by his experiences" (• , 2:2460).
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¢ This is the term which refers to someone who proclaims
the gospel or announces the good news of Christ.

¢ Jesus Christ was an evangelist, because He preached the
gospel, according to Luke 20:1.
¢ Paul was an evangelist as well as an apostle, according to
Romans 1:15.
¢ Philip the deacon was an evangelist, in Acts 8:5 and 21:8.
¢ Timothy the pastor was an evangelist, in 2 Timothy 4:5.
¢ And all the early disciples after being forced to flee from
Jerusalem because of persecution, ͞went everywhere
preaching the Word,͟ as we see in Acts 8:4.
C
9 Ô  

¢ However, as it is used here in Ephesians 4:11, the Greek
word  ÷÷ is a very rare word in both the Bible and in
non-Christian literature. In the Bible it is used three times.

¢ #'), where Philip is referred to as an evangelist.

¢ ,'', where it is referenced with the other four
leaders of the church.

¢ #!  %,*, where Timothy is charged with doing the
work of an evangelist.
   "
  
¢ Since we only have three references to the ͞evangelist͟ in
the NT, and the reference in Ephesians 4:11 is the one we are
looking at, that leaves us with only two other passages to
help us understand the role of this leader in the local church.
But these two references are   helpful and make a solid
case for one important feature about this leader.

~ &      ô+(
In the case of Philip, his missionary work had to be ratified by the
Apostles Peter and John (Acts 8:14 ff.). In the case of Timothy,
he was directly commissioned and set in local church leadership
by the Apostle Paul.


  

 

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͞The term  ÷÷ is thus clearly intended to refer to
people who carry on the work of the apostles͙These
evangelists may have been engaged in missionary work
(Acts 21:8), or church leadership (2 Tim. 4:5)͟
•      
÷  , Volume 2, Page 114, ͞Gospel͟

͞He collaborates with the apostles and continues their
mission, spreading their preaching without having their
authority͙His ministry is especially itinerant, but can also
be fixed, and the evangelist ʹ like Timothy...is stationed͙in
the community where he carries out other
responsibilities͙͟
     
÷, Volume 2, Pages 91-92, ͞ Ô  

Ô ͟
   "
  
Evangelists ͞are not primarily missionaries, but instead serve
the Church through the proclamation of the gospel. A clearly
demarcated church office is not apparent.͟
     
÷, Volume 2, Page 70, ͞ Ô  

͟

͞The evangelist has no fixed place of residence, but moves
abut in different localities, preaching the gospel to those
ignorant of it before. As these are converted and united to
Jesus Christ by faith, the work of the pastor and teacher
begins, to instruct them further in the things of Christ͙͟
•        ° , Volume 2, Page 1040, ͞Evangelist͟
|   

  
     

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¢ The Greek word for ͞pastor͟ means ͞shepherd͟.

¢ It doesn͛t refer to an ecclesiastical office or title. Rather it is a
figurative term which describes the obligation of the pastor in
terms of his relationship to the local church. He is to shepherd
them, feed them, care for them, and protect them͙just as a
literal shepherd would for a flock of literal sheep.

¢ This becomes a command Paul gives to the Ephesians elders in
Acts 20:28, where he writes, ͞Be on guard for yourselves and for
all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you
overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased
with His own blood.͟
 •% 
"  
¢ Because the Greek word °  is only a description of
one͛s function, it is helpful to locate other roles which have
the same or similar descriptions in order to understand who
the ͞pastor͟ in a local church is.

¢ In #$#), Paul uses the Greek word for ͞shepherd͟ together with
another Greek word, ° ÷ ° ÷ which is translated ͞overseer.͟
Therefore,     .

¢ In '*E, Paul is writing to Titus regarding the qualifications
of church leaders. In 1:7, Paul uses the Greek word ° ÷ ° ÷, but first
introduces the section with another Greek word, ° ÷  ÷, which
means ͞elder. Therefore,       . 
•% 
"  

  

:
 •% 
"  
¢ In '!  %*'E, the pastor is called an elder, and his
function is translated as ͞laboring in exhaustion in word and
teaching.͟ This means     |  "
 (

¢  .  8is a qualification given to the elder, in '!  %#.
A better translation is ͞skilled to teach.͟ Therefore, the pastor must be
skilled in teaching the Scriptures.

¢ In '@, Paul says that an elder must be, ͞ " " " 
        !%...   
6    "   (8
Therefore, a pastor must also have a firm grasp on the gospel, as well as a
skilled ability to exhort in sound doctrine, and refute those who are in
doctrinal error.
 •% 
"  
•Ú!!%F

¢ The word ͞elder͟ (° ÷  ÷) emphasizes the attitude and
character of this leader.

¢ The word ͞overseer͟ (° ÷ ° ÷) speaks of his role in the local
church..

¢ The word ͞pastor͟ (° ) deals with his function and
responsibility.
|   

  
     

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  ~ ?Ú
& 
~ ~Ô
¢ The Greek word for ͞teacher͟ means ͞to instruct͟.

¢ It doesn͛t refer to an ecclesiastical office or title. Rather it is a
figurative term which describes the obligation of the pastor in
terms of his relationship to the local church. He is to shepherd
them, feed them, care for them, and protect them͙just as a
literal shepherd would for a flock of literal sheep.

¢ This becomes a command Paul gives to the Ephesians elders in
Acts 20:28, where he writes, ͞Be on guard for yourselves and for
all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you
overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased
with His own blood.͟
   "
 
¢ ~    (In the book of Acts, teaching is almost
exclusively used to refer to evangelistic labors by apostolic
teams. So with the introduction of this role of ͞teachers͟, it
becomes quickly evident that it is an extremely flexible and
versatile role of leadership in the church.    
  
 Ý          
    

 

Ý    
   .

¢ ~  Ú (In Paul͛s letters, teaching is almost
exclusively used to refer to the pastoral labors of elders and church
leaders.    
   Ý   
   

        Ý    .
   "
 
͞The office of teacher is fundamentally related to the
creation of a missionary atmosphere (Acts 13:1)͙

͞ The teaching function of Christianity in the 2nd cent.
became strictly official, therefore losing much of its
elasticity.͟
-•        ° , Volume 4, Page 2923 ͞Teach, Teacher, Teaching͟

In summary, all pastors are required to be teachers, but not all
teachers are pastors. Some teachers are apostolic, or evangelistic,
or even prophetic. Therefore, the lines cannot be clearly drawn
between these five roles.
 :  " 

  
¢ In Acts the missionary proclamation of the apostles or of
Paul is frequently described in terms of teaching (4:2; 5:21,
25: in the temple; 11:26).

¢ In Acts the apostolic teaching is even described in terms of
evangelism, as the content of the teaching was the proclamation
about Christ (5:42; 15:35; 18:11, 25; 28:31; cf. 4:18; 5:28:
͞teaching in Jesus͛ name͟).

¢ In Paul͛s letters, teaching is generally for the church (Eph. 4:21; Col.
2:7; 3:15; 2 Thess. 2:15; 1 Tim. 2:12), which puts it squarely in the
lap of the pastors, or elders.
v Building v Building
v Prophesying v Teaching
v Evangelizing v Pastoring
v Pastoring v Teaching
v Teaching

Apostles Prophets

Pastors &
Evangelists
Teachers
v Teaching v Prophesying
v Prophesying v Building
v Evangelizing
 :  " 

  
¢ Again, to summarize, these five ministries of the church are
flexible, elastic, and overlapping, which is what we would
expect from a Holy Spirit who gives gifts and abilities and
skills to people as He so determines (1 Cor. 12:11).

¢ ror this reason, there can be no clearly defined offices and
therefore no titles for these men who work in the church today.

¢ Consequently, this is why there is the absolute necessity of these
five leaders working in a team with each other. The Holy Spirit
moves in and out of each leader enabling him to do what the Spirit
best sees fit for Jesus͛ church at that particular time. The more
men you have on a team, therefore, the greater impact and benefit
will be had on the church.
Stay tuned next week as Carl Herrington,
°÷ ÷° ÷  
    ÷ 
    ÷       
further describes the necessity and nature
of the relationship of working in team͙
especially as it relates to leading a local church.
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