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Original Title: Lecture 1 Crystal Lattice EEE 313 Summer 2015

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High resistivity => insulator

Intermediate resistivity =>

semiconductor

conductivity lies between that of conductors

and insulators

generally crystalline in structure for IC devices

In recent years, however, non-crystalline

semiconductors have become commercially very

important

polycrystalline

amorphous crystalline

# of Electrons

1

2

3

Z Name 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d

Notation

1

1H

1s

2 He

1s 2

3 Li

1s 2 2s 1

4 Be

1s 2 2s 2

5B

1s 2 2s 2 2p1

6C

1s 2 2s 2 2p2

7N

1s 2 2s 2 2p3

8O

1s 2 2s 2 2p4

9F

1s 2 2s 2 2p5

10 Ne

1s 2 2s 2 2p6

11 Na

1s 2 2s 2 2p6 3s 1

12 Mg

1s 2 2s 2 2p6 3s 2

13 Al

1s 2 2s 2 2p6 3s 2 3p1

14 Si

1s 2 2s 2 2p6 3s 2 3p2

15 P

1s 2 2s 2 2p6 3s 2 3p3

16 S

1s 2 2s 2 2p6 3s 2 3p4

17 Cl

1s 2 2s 2 2p6 3s 2 3p5

18 Ar

1s 2 2s 2 2p6 3s 2 3p6

14 electrons occupying the 1st 3 energy

levels:

1s, 2s, 2p orbitals filled by 10 electrons

3s, 3p orbitals filled by 4 electrons

To minimize the overall energy, the 3s and 3p

orbitals hybridize to form 4 tetrahedral 3sp

orbitals

Each has one electron and

is capable of forming a bond

with a neighboring atom

crystal that could be used to reproduce a crystal.

Two different

ways of

representing

a unit cell

common semiconductors

body diagonal*

8 atoms per unit cell

Diamond lattice (also called zincblende if interpenetrating

FCC lattices are made of different elements like in GaAs)

Each atom is bonded to 4 other atoms (tetrahedral bonding

structure)

* The lattice constant or cubic edge is a. Generally a is

expressed in Angstroms. 1 = 108 cm = 1010 m

6

The Si Crystal

Each Si atom has

4 nearest

neighbors

lattice constant

= 5.431

cm-3?

4 atoms completely inside cell

count as 1 atom inside cell

Each of the 6 atoms on the faces are shared among 2

cells count as 3 atoms inside cell

Total number inside the cell = 4 + 1 + 3 = 8

Cell volume:

(.543 nm)3 = 1.6 x 10-22 cm3

= (8 atoms) / (cell volume) = 5 x 1022 atoms/cm3

Example

What is the density of Si?

Atomic weight of Si = 28.1 i.e. 1 mole (NA = 6.023 x 1023 atoms)

of Si has a mass of 28.1 g

gm

51022 atoms

28.1

3

mole 2.33 g

cm

Density

3

23 atoms

cm

6.02 10

mole

11

Compound

Semiconductors

Ga

As

zincblende structure

III-V compound semiconductors: GaAs, GaP, GaN, etc.

important for optoelectronics and high-speed ICs

Crystallographic Notation

Miller Indices:

Notation

(hkl)

Interpretation

{hkl}

equivalent planes

[hkl]

crystal direction

<hkl>

equivalent directions

crystal plane

h: inverse x-intercept of

k: inverse y-intercept of

l: inverse z-intercept of p

(Intercept values are in multiples of the lattice

h, k and l are reduced to 3 integers having the

Si Wafers

along a {100} plane with a flat

or notch to orient the wafer

during IC fabrication:

Crystallographic Planes in

Si

Unit cell:

View in <100> direction

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