SMART MATERIALS

Introduction:Introduction:-

‡ Nature is full of magic materials. ‡ Smart materials can sense, stimulate, process and
actuate a response. ‡ the properties can be easily altered.

Shape memory alloys (SMA¶s):‡ Metals which exhibit 2 unique properties: (1) Pseudo-elasticity. (2) Shape Memory Effect.

Working of SMA·s: 

The properties are due to the solid state phase change. There are two phases:(1) Marten site and (2) Austenite.

‡ Marten site is relatively soft and exist at low temp·s ‡ The molecular structure is as below:

Austenite is the stronger phase, occurs at high temp·s. Cubic structure.

Shape Memory Effect: The un-deformed marten site and the 

austenite have same size and shape. Shape memory effect is absorbed when it is cooled down to less than Mf.

Pseudo Elasticity: 



It occurs in the alloys which completely consists of Austenite. It occurs without a change in temperature. Applications of pseudo elasticity: (1) eyeglass frames. (2) orthodontic arches.

Applications of shape memory alloys:alloys:- 

In air craft maneuverability. 

In Robotic muscles:

Points of consideration:(1) (2) (3)

The method of controlling movement with the limb. Emulating real human movements. The gripping force required to hold any object.

Creating human motion using SMA wires is a complex task. The wire is heated by passing the current through it. 

In Bone plates:

advantages of sma:sma:  BioBio-compact ability Good Mechanical properties.

disdis-advantages of sma:sma:  These alloys are expensive. poor fatigue properties

Conclusion:Conclusion:The SMA·s have a major say in the field of precision engineering. These play a vital role in the surgical operations. These act as best alternatives in the field of manufacturing.

References:o

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Material Science and Manufacturing by M.Moallem. Material Science and Engineering by K.M.Guptha, Umesh Publications. Elements of Material Science and Engineering by Van vik / Adison Wesley.

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