# Third Edition

CHAPTER

3

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. John T. DeWolf Lecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University

Torsion

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Contents
Introduction Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts Net Torque Due to Internal Stresses Axial Shear Components Shaft Deformations Shearing Strain Stresses in Elastic Range Normal Stresses Torsional Failure Modes Sample Problem 3.1 Angle of Twist in Elastic Range

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Statically Indeterminate Shafts Sample Problem 3.4 Design of Transmission Shafts Stress Concentrations Plastic Deformations Elastoplastic Materials Residual Stresses Example 3.08/3.09 Torsion of Noncircular Members Thin-Walled Hollow Shafts Example 3.10

3-2

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Interested in stresses and strains of circular shafts subjected to twisting couples or torques • Turbine exerts torque T on the shaft • Shaft transmits the torque to the generator • Generator creates an equal and opposite torque T’

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Net Torque Due to Internal Stresses

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Net of the internal shearing stresses is an internal torque, equal and opposite to the applied torque,
T = ∫ ρ dF = ∫ ρ ( τ dA)

• Although the net torque due to the shearing stresses is known, the distribution of the stresses is not • Distribution of shearing stresses is statically indeterminate – must consider shaft deformations • Unlike the normal stress due to axial loads, the distribution of shearing stresses due to torsional loads can not be assumed uniform.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Axial Shear Components

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Torque applied to shaft produces shearing stresses on the faces perpendicular to the axis. • Conditions of equilibrium require the existence of equal stresses on the faces of the two planes containing the axis of the shaft • The existence of the axial shear components is demonstrated by considering a shaft made up of axial slats. The slats slide with respect to each other when equal and opposite torques are applied to the ends of the shaft.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Shaft Deformations

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• From observation, the angle of twist of the shaft is proportional to the applied torque and to the shaft length.
φ ∝T φ∝L

• When subjected to torsion, every cross-section of a circular shaft remains plane and undistorted. • Cross-sections for hollow and solid circular shafts remain plain and undistorted because a circular shaft is axisymmetric. • Cross-sections of noncircular (nonaxisymmetric) shafts are distorted when subjected to torsion.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Shearing Strain

Third Edition

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• Consider an interior section of the shaft. As a torsional load is applied, an element on the interior cylinder deforms into a rhombus. • Since the ends of the element remain planar, the shear strain is equal to angle of twist. • It follows that
Lγ = ρφ or γ =

ρφ L

• Shear strain is proportional to twist and radius
γ max =
cφ ρ and γ = γ max L c

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Stresses in Elastic Range

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Multiplying the previous equation by the shear modulus,
Gγ =

ρ Gγ max c

From Hooke’s Law, τ = Gγ , so
τ=
J = 1 π c4 2

ρ τ max c

The shearing stress varies linearly with the radial position in the section. • Recall that the sum of the moments from the internal stress distribution is equal to the torque on the shaft at the section,
τ τ T = ∫ ρτ dA = max ∫ ρ 2 dA = max J c c

4 4 J = 1 π c2 − c1 2

(

)

• The results are known as the elastic torsion formulas,
τ max =
Tc Tρ and τ = J J

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Normal Stresses

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Elements with faces parallel and perpendicular to the shaft axis are subjected to shear stresses only. Normal stresses, shearing stresses or a combination of both may be found for other orientations. • Consider an element at 45o to the shaft axis,
F = 2( τ max A0 ) cos 45 = τ max A0 2 F τ max A0 2 = = τ max A A0 2

σ

45o

=

• Element a is in pure shear. • Element c is subjected to a tensile stress on two faces and compressive stress on the other two. • Note that all stresses for elements a and c have the same magnitude
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Torsional Failure Modes

Third Edition

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• Ductile materials generally fail in shear. Brittle materials are weaker in tension than shear. • When subjected to torsion, a ductile specimen breaks along a plane of maximum shear, i.e., a plane perpendicular to the shaft axis. • When subjected to torsion, a brittle specimen breaks along planes perpendicular to the direction in which tension is a maximum, i.e., along surfaces at 45o to the shaft axis.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Sample Problem 3.1
SOLUTION:

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Cut sections through shafts AB and BC and perform static equilibrium analysis to find torque loadings • Apply elastic torsion formulas to find minimum and maximum stress on shaft BC • Given allowable shearing stress and applied torque, invert the elastic torsion formula to find the required diameter

Shaft BC is hollow with inner and outer diameters of 90 mm and 120 mm, respectively. Shafts AB and CD are solid of diameter d. For the loading shown, determine (a) the minimum and maximum shearing stress in shaft BC, (b) the required diameter d of shafts AB and CD if the allowable shearing stress in these shafts is 65 MPa.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Sample Problem 3.1 SOLUTION:
• Cut sections through shafts AB and BC and perform static equilibrium analysis to find torque loadings

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

∑ M x = 0 = ( 6 kN ⋅ m ) − TAB
TAB = 6 kN ⋅ m = TCD

∑ M x = 0 = ( 6 kN ⋅ m ) + (14 kN ⋅ m ) − TBC
TBC = 20 kN ⋅ m

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Sample Problem 3.1
• Apply elastic torsion formulas to find minimum and maximum stress on shaft BC

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Given allowable shearing stress and applied torque, invert the elastic torsion formula to find the required diameter

J=

π 4 4 π c2 − c1 = ( 0.060 ) 4 − ( 0.045) 4 2 2

(

) [

]

τ max =

= 13.92 × 10− 6 m 4

Tc Tc = J π c4 2

65MPa =

6 kN ⋅ m
π c3 2

τ max = τ 2 =

TBC c2 ( 20 kN ⋅ m )( 0.060 m ) = J 13.92 ×10− 6 m 4

c = 38.9 × 10−3 m d = 2c = 77.8 mm

= 86.2 MPa

τ min c1 = τ max c2

τ min 45 mm = 86.2 MPa 60 mm

τ max = 86.2 MPa τ min = 64.7 MPa
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τ min = 64.7 MPa

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Angle of Twist in Elastic Range

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Recall that the angle of twist and maximum shearing strain are related,
γ max =
cφ L

• In the elastic range, the shearing strain and shear are related by Hooke’s Law,
γ max = τ max Tc = G JG

• Equating the expressions for shearing strain and solving for the angle of twist,
φ=

• If the torsional loading or shaft cross-section changes along the length, the angle of rotation is found as the sum of segment rotations
φ =∑
Ti Li i J i Gi

TL JG

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Statically Indeterminate Shafts

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Given the shaft dimensions and the applied torque, we would like to find the torque reactions at A and B. • From a free-body analysis of the shaft,
TA + TB = 90 lb ⋅ ft

which is not sufficient to find the end torques. The problem is statically indeterminate. • Divide the shaft into two components which must have compatible deformations,
φ = φ1 + φ 2 =
TA L1 TB L2 − =0 J1G J 2G LJ TB = 1 2 TA L2 J1

• Substitute into the original equilibrium equation,
LJ TA + 1 2 TA = 90 lb ⋅ ft L2 J1

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Sample Problem 3.4
SOLUTION:

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Apply a static equilibrium analysis on the two shafts to find a relationship between TCD and T0 • Apply a kinematic analysis to relate the angular rotations of the gears Two solid steel shafts are connected by gears. Knowing that for each shaft G = 11.2 x 106 psi and that the allowable shearing stress is 8 ksi, determine (a) the largest torque T0 that may be applied to the end of shaft AB, (b) the corresponding angle through which end A of shaft AB rotates.

• Find the maximum allowable torque on each shaft – choose the smallest • Find the corresponding angle of twist for each shaft and the net angular rotation of end A

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Sample Problem 3.4
SOLUTION: • Apply a static equilibrium analysis on the two shafts to find a relationship between TCD and T0

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Apply a kinematic analysis to relate the angular rotations of the gears

∑ M B = 0 = F ( 0.875 in.) − T0 ∑ M C = 0 = F ( 2.45 in.) − TCD
TCD = 2.8 T0

rBφ B = rCφC

φB =

rC 2.45 in. φC = φC rB 0.875 in.

φ B = 2.8φC
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Sample Problem 3.4

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Find the corresponding angle of twist for each • Find the T0 for the maximum shaft and the net angular rotation of end A allowable torque on each shaft – choose the smallest

( 561lb ⋅ in.)( 24in.) T L φ A / B = AB = J ABG π ( 0.375 in.) 4 11.2 × 106 psi 2

(

)

τ max =

T ( 0.375 in.) TAB c 8000 psi = 0 π ( 0.375 in.) 4 J AB 2 TCD c 2.8 T0 ( 0.5 in.) 8000 psi = π ( 0.5 in.) 4 J CD 2 T0 = 561lb ⋅ in

= 0.387 rad = 2.22o T L 2.8 ( 561lb ⋅ in.)( 24in.) φC / D = CD = J CDG π ( 0.5 in.) 4 11.2 × 106 psi 2

T0 = 663 lb ⋅ in.

(

)

τ max =

φ B = 2.8φC = 2.8 2.95o = 8.26o φ A = φ B + φ A / B = 8.26o + 2.22o
φ A = 10.48o
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(

)

T0 = 561lb ⋅ in.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Design of Transmission Shafts
• Principal transmission shaft performance specifications are: - power - speed • Designer must select shaft material and cross-section to meet performance specifications without exceeding allowable shearing stress.

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Determine torque applied to shaft at specified power and speed,
P = Tω = 2πfT T= P P = ω 2πf

• Find shaft cross-section which will not exceed the maximum allowable shearing stress,
τ max =
Tc J

J π 3 T = c = c 2 τ max

( solid shafts )

J π 4 4 T = c2 − c1 = c2 2c2 τ max

(

)

( hollow shafts )

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Stress Concentrations

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• The derivation of the torsion formula,
τ max =
Tc J

assumed a circular shaft with uniform cross-section loaded through rigid end plates. • The use of flange couplings, gears and pulleys attached to shafts by keys in keyways, and cross-section discontinuities can cause stress concentrations • Experimental or numerically determined concentration factors are applied as
τ max = K
Tc J

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Plastic Deformations
Tc J

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• With the assumption of a linearly elastic material,
τ max =

• If the yield strength is exceeded or the material has a nonlinear shearing-stress-strain curve, this expression does not hold. • Shearing strain varies linearly regardless of material properties. Application of shearing-stressstrain curve allows determination of stress distribution. • The integral of the moments from the internal stress distribution is equal to the torque on the shaft at the section,
T = ∫ ρτ ( 2πρ dρ ) = 2π ∫ ρ 2τ dρ
0 0 c c

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Elastoplastic Materials
• At the maximum elastic torque,
TY = J τ Y = 1 πc3τ Y 2 c Lγ Y c

Third Edition

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φY =

• As the torque is increased, a plastic region ρ τY ) τ = τ Y ) develops around an elastic core ( τ = (
ρY =
T= T= Lγ Y φ  
3 3 ρY  4  1 ρY   = T 1 −  3  3 Y 4 3  c  c  

ρY

2 πc 3τ 1 − 1 Y 3 4

3  4 T 1 − 1 φY  3 Y 4 3

φ 

• As ρY → 0, the torque approaches a limiting value,
TP = 4 TY = plastic torque 3

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Residual Stresses

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Plastic region develops in a shaft when subjected to a large enough torque • When the torque is removed, the reduction of stress and strain at each point takes place along a straight line to a generally non-zero residual stress • On a T-φ curve, the shaft unloads along a straight line to an angle greater than zero • Residual stresses found from principle of superposition

Tc ′ τm = J

∫ ρ ( τ dA) = 0
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Example 3.08/3.09
SOLUTION:

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Solve Eq. (3.32) for ρY/c and evaluate the elastic core radius • Solve Eq. (3.36) for the angle of twist A solid circular shaft is subjected to T a torque = 4.6 kN ⋅ m at each end. Assuming that the shaft is made of an elastoplastic material with τ Y = 150 MPa G= and 77 GPa determine (a) the radius of the elastic core, (b) the angle of twist of the shaft. When the torque is removed, determine (c) the permanent twist, (d) the distribution of residual stresses. • Evaluate Eq. (3.16) for the angle which the shaft untwists when the torque is removed. The permanent twist is the difference between the angles of twist and untwist • Find the residual stress distribution by a superposition of the stress due to twisting and untwisting the shaft

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Example 3.08/3.09 SOLUTION:
• Solve Eq. (3.32) for ρY/c and evaluate the elastic core radius
3  4 T 1 − 1 ρY  ⇒ T=3 Y  4 c3   

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Solve Eq. (3.36) for the angle of twist
   
1 3

J=

1 πc 4 2

=

1π 2

(25 ×10 m)
−3

ρY  T = 4 −3  c TY 

φ ρ = Y φY c

⇒ φ=

φY ρY c

TY L 3.68 ×103 N (1.2 m ) φY = = JG 614 ×10-9 m 4 ( 77 × 10 Pa )

= 614 ×10−9 m 4

(

(

)

)

τY =

(150 ×106 Pa )(614 ×10−9 m4 ) TY =
25 × 10−3 m = 3.68 kN ⋅ m

TY c J

τ J ⇒ TY = Y c

φY = 93.4 × 10−3 rad
93.4 × 10−3 rad φ= = 148.3 × 10−3 rad = 8.50o 0.630

φ = 8.50o

ρY  4.6  = 4 −3  c 3.68  

1

3

= 0.630

ρY = 15.8 mm
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Example 3.08/3.09
• Evaluate Eq. (3.16) for the angle which the shaft untwists when the torque is removed. The permanent twist is the difference between the angles of twist and untwist
φ′ =

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Find the residual stress distribution by a superposition of the stress due to twisting and untwisting the shaft
Tc 4.6 ×103 N ⋅ m 25 × 10−3 m ′ τ max = = J 614 × 10-9 m 4 = 187.3 MPa

(

)(

)

(4.6 ×103 N ⋅ m)(1.2 m ) = (6.14 ×109 m4 )(77 ×109 Pa )
= 116.8 × 10−3 rad φp = φ − φ ′ = 116.8 × 10−3 − 116.8 × 10−3 rad = 1.81o

TL JG

(

)

φ p = 1.81o
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Torsion of Noncircular Members

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Previous torsion formulas are valid for axisymmetric or circular shafts • Planar cross-sections of noncircular shafts do not remain planar and stress and strain distribution do not vary linearly • For uniform rectangular cross-sections,
τ max =
T c1ab 2 TL c2 ab3G

φ=

• At large values of a/b, the maximum shear stress and angle of twist for other open sections are the same as a rectangular bar.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Thin-Walled Hollow Shafts

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Summing forces in the x-direction on AB, ∑ Fx = 0 = τ A ( t A∆x ) − τ B ( t B ∆x )
τ At A= τ B t B = τ t = q = shear flow

shear stress varies inversely with thickness • Compute the shaft torque from the integral of the moments due to shear stress
dM 0 = p dF = pτ ( t ds ) = q( pds ) = 2q dA T 2tA TL ds T = ∫ dM 0 = ∫ 2q dA = 2qA

τ=

• Angle of twist (from Chapt 11)
φ=

∫ 4 A 2G t

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Example 3.10

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Extruded aluminum tubing with a rectangular cross-section has a torque loading of 24 kipin. Determine the shearing stress in each of the four walls with (a) uniform wall thickness of 0.160 in. and wall thicknesses of (b) 0.120 in. on AB and CD and 0.200 in. on CD and BD. SOLUTION: • Determine the shear flow through the tubing walls • Find the corresponding shearing stress with each wall thickness

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Example 3.10
SOLUTION: • Determine the shear flow through the tubing walls

Third Edition

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Find the corresponding shearing stress with each wall thickness

with a uniform wall thickness,
τ=
q 1.335 kip in. = t 0.160 in.

τ = 8.34 ksi

with a variable wall thickness
A = ( 3.84 in.)( 2.34 in.) = 8.986 in.2 q= T 24 kip - in. kip = = 1.335 2 A 2 8.986 in.2 in.

τ AB = τ AC =

1.335 kip in. 0.120 in.

(

)

τ AB = τ BC = 11.13 ksi τ BD = τ CD =
1.335 kip in. 0.200 in.

τ BC = τ CD = 6.68 ksi