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Epithelial tissues Connective tissues Nervous tissues Muscle tissues
Histology (microscopic anatomy)
The study of tissues and how they are arranged into organs. Tissue: a mass of similar cells and cell products that arise from the same region of the embryo and perform a particular function. Organ: a structure composed of two or more tissue types working together to carry out a particular function.
Composition of tissues
Cells Extracellular matrix Tissues types differ in: ± Types and functions of cells ± Matrix characteristics ± Relative amount of space occupied by cells vs. matrix
Composition of matrix:
Fibrous proteins Usually, a clear gel with a variety of names: ± Ground substance ± Tissue fluid ± Extracellular fluid (ECF) ± Interstitial fluid ± Tissue gel This may be rubbery or mineralized and hard
Three primary germ layers are formed first ± give rise to all subsequent tissues ± Ectoderm ± Mesoderm ± Endoderm
Ectoderm: forms epidermis and nervous tissue. Mesoderm: forms mesenchyme which then forms bone, muscle, blood, etc. Endoderm: forms mucous membranes of the digestive and respiratory tracts, digestive glands, etc.
The four primary tissues
Epithelial: develops from all 3 germ layers Connective: develops from mesoderm Nervous: develops from ectoderm Muscular: most develops from mesoderm
Forms sheets and glands. Sheets cover the surface of the body, line body cavities, and form internal and external linings of many organs. Glands produce secretions.
2 types of epithelial tissue:
1) covering and lining epithelia: ± the epidermis of the skin ± the outer layer of some internal organs ± the inner lining of blood vessels, ducts, and body cavities ± interior of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. 2) glandular epithelia: the secreting portions of glands ± the thyroid gland ± adrenal glands ± sweat glands etc.
(note-not all glands are epithelial)
One or more layers of closely adhering cells ± extracellular material is so thin it is not visible ± No blood vessels
depends on underlying connective tissue for oxygen
± Sits on a basement membrane
anchors epithelium to underlying connective tissue
Components of epithelial tissue
Basement membrane: Separates the epithelium and the connective tissue it lies upon. Basal surface (membrane) of the cell rests on the basement membrane. Apical surface (membrane) of the cell faces away from the basement membrane, often into an open space.
covering and lining epithelia
Types are classified according to 2 characteristics: ± the arrangement of cells into layers ± the shapes of the cells.
Epithelial cell shapes and arrangements
Simple squamous epithelium Simple cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Nonciliated: contains apical microvilli and goblet cells. Ciliated: the apical surface has cilia.
Pseudostratified columnar epithelia:
not all cells reach the apical surface. Nuclei are at different levels but all cells are attached to the basement membrane. Ciliated and non-ciliated forms. Function: secretion, and (ciliated forms) movement of mucus.
Stratified squamous epithelium Stratified cuboidal epithelium Stratified columnar epithelium (rare) Transitional epithelium
Stratified squamous, keratinized
Stratified squamous, nonkeratinized
The most abundant and variable tissue type. Cells are not in direct contact with each other but are surrounded by matrix. Volume of extracellular matrix is greater than the volume occupied by cells. The unique properties of each type of connective tissue come from the matrix. The matrix may be fluid, semifluid, calcified, etc.
Functions of connective tissues
Binding of organs Support Physical & immune protection Movement Storage of energy Heat production Transport of materials throughout body
Cells of Fibrous Connective Tissue
Fibroblasts produce fibers & ground substance of matrix. Macrophages wander through connective tissue phagocytizing foreign material & activating the immune system. Leucocytes (WBCs) wander in search of bacteria, toxins etc. Plasma cells synthesize antibodies. Mast cells secrete heparin that inhibits blood clotting and histamine that dilates blood vessels. Adipocytes store triglycerides.
Types of connective tissues
Fibrous connective tissue ± Loose, dense Cartilage ± Hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage Bone ± Spongy, compact (dense) Blood
Fibers of Connective Tissue
Collagenous fibers (white fibers) ± tough, resist stretch but flexible ± Found in tendons, ligaments & deep layer of the skin (dermis) Reticular fibers ± thin collagen fibers coated with glycoprotein ± form a spongelike framework for organs including the spleen & lymph nodes. Elastic fibers (yellow fibers) ± thin branching fibers made of elastin ± stretch & recoil like a rubber band ± give skin, lungs & arteries ability to stretch & recoil
Cells of connective tissues:
-blasts: immature cells ± retain the capacity for cell division and secrete the matrix. -cytes: mature, differentiated cells ± have reduced capacity for cell division and matrix formation ± are mainly involved in maintaining the matrix.
Fibrous connective tissues
The most diverse type of connective tissue. Contain very conspicuous fibers
Types of fibrous connective tissues
Loose connective tissue: largely ground substance. ± Areolar tissue ± Reticular tissue ± Adipose tissue Dense connective tissue: fibers occupy most of the space. ± Dense regular connective tissue ± Dense irregular connective tissue
Loosely organized collagenous and elastic fibers running in random directions Abundant blood vessels Surrounds and forms passageways for blood vessels and nerves. Found under all epithelia, fascia between muscles
A mesh of reticular fibers and fibroblasts Forms the structural framework (stroma) of some organs and tissues. Many blood cells among the fibers.
White fat: energy storage, insulation. Subcutaneous fat beneath skin; surrounds organs Brown fat: stores fat as heat source
Produces heat, no ATP.
Dense regular connective tissue
Fibers are closely packed. Collagen fibers are parallel. Fibroblasts are the only cell type. Few blood vessels. Found especially in ligaments and tendons.
Dense regular connective tissue cont.
Yellow Elastic tissue: a type of dense regular connective tissue has in addition to parallel collagen fibers many elastic fibers. ± Forms elastic sheets in arterial walls, vocal cords, some ligaments
Dense irregular connective tissue
Many collagen fibers Fibers run in random directions. ± Withstands stress in many directions Forms much of the dermis and protective capsules or sheaths around organs including kidneys, nerves, and bones.
A supportive connective tissue with a flexible rubbery matrix. Chondroblasts form the matrix, become embedded in it in spaces called lacunae. ± The cells are then called chondrocytes. Little blood supply, heals slowly. Major types of cartilage depend upon types of fiber ± hyaline, fibrocartilage and elastic cartilage
Types of cartilage:
Hyaline cartilage: very fine collagen fibers. ± Usually has a perichondrium (a sheath of dense irregular connective tissue) where growth occurs. Elastic cartilage: prominent elastic fibers. ± Always has a perichondrium. Fibrocartilage: prominent collagen fibers. ± Never has a perichondrium.
Clear, glassy matrix; fine dispersed collagen fibers; chondrocytes in small clusters enclosed in lacunae Supports airway, eases joint movements Forms fetal skeleton Covers ends of bones at movable joints; sternal ends of ribs; supportive material in larynx, trachea, and bronchi.
Hyaline cartilage with a weblike mesh of elastic fibers amongst the lacunae. Provides flexible, elastic support External ear and epiglottis
Cartilage containing extensive parallel collagen fibers. Resists compression and absorbs shock in some joints. Pubic symphysis, menisci & intervertebral discs
Osseous tissue (bone)
Spongy bone: looks like sponge due to presence of spaces. Compact (dense) bone: no spaces that are visible without a microscope. ± Forms the outside of all bones; covered by a periosteum.
Cells and cell fragments (formed elements) are surrounded by a liquid ground substance (plasma). Erythrocytes: red blood cells; transport oxygen and carbon dioxide and help buffer the blood. Leukocytes: white blood cells; fight disease. Platelets: fragments of cells that function in clotting.
Muscle and nervous tissue produce action potentials: rapid changes in the membrane potential. Muscle: action potentials lead to contraction. Neuron: action potentials lead to signal transmission.
Neurons: nerve cells; respond to and transmit information. Neuroglia (glia): a variety of smaller but more numerous cells that support and protect the neurons.
Produces movement by contracting. 3 types: ± Skeletal muscle: striated ± Cardiac muscle: striated ± Smooth muscle: smooth
Cells are long and cylindrical; called muscle fibers. Most skeletal muscle is attached to bones, causing movement. Characteristics: Striated Voluntary Neurogenic. Multinucleate
Found only in the heart Cells are called myocytes. Characteristics: Striated Branched Involuntary Myogenic Uninucleate Electrically coupled at intercalated discs.
Most is in viscera; this is called visceral muscle. Lines much of the vascular system. Characteristics: Not striated Short and fusiform Involuntary May be myogenic or neurogenic.
serve one of 3 functions: 1) form fluid-tight seals between cells. 2) anchor cells together or to the extracellular material. 3) Act as channels that allow ions and molecules to pass from cell to cell within a tissue.
Tight junctions completely encircle the cell ± They form fluid-tight seals between cells. These limit movement of material from one side of an epithelium to the other.
Tight Junction. enlarged
A connection between two cells that helps keep them from pulling apart. ± A mesh of filaments crosses the space between cells, and terminates on a thick protein plaque on each cell. ± Within the cytoplasm, intermediate filaments also attach to plaque Does not encircle the cell Common in the uterus, heart and epidermis
Also known as communicating junctions. A ring of 6 transmembrane proteins forms a water-filled channel. Small solutes pass directly from cell to cell, coupling cells electrically. Found in embryos, cardiac & smooth muscle
Glands and secretions
A cell or organ that secretes substances. Exocrine glands: have a duct (an epithelial tube) that connects them with an open space or surface. Endocrine glands: have no ducts, secrete their products (called hormones) into the blood which circulates them through the body. Unicellular glands: an exocrine cell found in a non-secretory epithelium (such as goblet cells).
Types of secretions:
Serous glands: secrete thin, watery fluids. ± Perspiration, tears, milk, digestive juices etc. Mucous glands: secrete mucin that then forms mucus when mixed with water. Mixed glands: contain serous and mucous cells. ± Salivary glands Cytogenic glands: release whole cells. ± Testes and ovaries
Methods of secretion
Merocrine (eccrine) glands: release secretions by exocytosis. ± Tear glands, pancreas, gastric glands etc. ± Apocrine glands: a type of merocrine gland including axillary sweat glands and mammary glands. Holocrine glands: the entire cell disintegrates releasing product. ± Oil producing glands of scalp
Epithelial membranes ± Mucous membranes ± Cutaneous membranes ± Serous membranes ± Endothelium and mesothelium Non-epithelial membranes ± Synovial membranes
(mucosae): line passageways opening to the exterior. ± Produce mucus. ± Absorption, secretion, and protection.
Cutaneous membrane (skin)
stratified squamous epithelium resting on layer of connective tissue (the dermis) relatively dry, waterproof Protection
line some body cavities and form the outer surface of some organs. ± A simple squamous epithelium on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue. ± Produce serous fluidsimilar to blood serum
Endothelium: a simple squamous epithelium
lining the circulatory and lymphatic systems. ± Forms the:
Tunica interna of blood vessels Endocardium of heart
Mesothelium: a simple squamous epithelium lining the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities
Connective tissue membranes that line some joints. Do not include an epithelium. Secrete synovial fluid into the joint ± A slippery fluid.
Changes in tissue
Changes in Tissue Type ± Differentiation: development of a cell or tissue from an unspecialized form to a specialized form. ± Metaplasia: a change from one type of mature tissue to another.
Tissue growth ± Hyperplasia: tissue growth due to cell division. ± Hypertrophy: tissue growth due to increase in cell size. ± Neoplasia: development of a tumor of abnormal, nonfunctioning tissue
Undifferentiated cells that give rise to other cell types. Embryonic stem cells ± Totipotent: can develop into any fully differentiated cell. ± Pluripotent: can form any cell of the embryo but cannot form the accessory organs of pregnancy. Adult stem cells ± Multipotent: may form 2 or more cell types. ± Unipotent: can only produce one mature cell type.
Tissue shrinkage and death
Atrophy: shrinkage due to loss of cell number or cell size. Necrosis: premature, pathological death of tissue. Apoptosis: normal, programmed cell death. Occurs without release of cell contents. Gangrene: any tissue necrosis due to inadequate blood supply. Gas gangrene: necrosis of a wound due to infection by bacteria. Infarction: death of tissue when its blood supply is cut off.
Damaged tissues are repaired in 2 ways:
Regeneration: Replacement of dead or damaged cells with functioning cells of the original cell type. ± Restores normal function to the tissue. ± skin and liver injuries regenerate readily. Fibrosis: Replacement of damaged cells with scar tissue (collagen) ± helps hold the organ together, but function is not restored ± healing of muscle or brain injuries, scarring of lung tissue in TB, or healing of severe cuts & burns of the skin.
New cells originate by cell division from:
the stroma: the supporting connective tissue the parenchyma: the cells that make up the tissue or organ¶s functioning part. ± Cell division in the stroma forms scar tissue- loss of function ± Cell division in the parenchyma forms functioning cells.
Epithelial cells: are continuously replacing themselves. Connective tissues: capacity varies. Bone readily renews itself. Others such as cartilage or fibrous connective tissue renew themselves much more slowly. Muscle tissue: pretty poor capacity. Smooth muscle is not bad at it, there is some renewal possible in skeletal muscle, but cardiac muscle cells do not divide to form new fibers. Nerve tissue: the poorest capacity for renewal. Damaged or destroyed neurons are not replaced. Some brain regions form new cells throughout life but most regions do not.
Skin wound healing.
2 kinds of wound-healing processes can occur, depending on the depth of the injury. Epidermal wound healing occurs following wounds that affect only the epidermis. Deep wound healing occurs following wounds that penetrate the dermis or subcutaneous layers.
Epidermal wound healing
Deep wound healing:
Stages: 1.Bleeding into the wound 2. Blood clot formation, arrival of macrophages. 3. New capillaries grow, granulation tissue forms. 4. Epithelial regeneration and connective tissue fibrosis
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