Histology

Chapter 5

Primary tissue:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Epithelial tissues Connective tissues Nervous tissues Muscle tissues

Histology (microscopic anatomy)
‡ The study of tissues and how they are arranged into organs. ‡ Tissue: a mass of similar cells and cell products that arise from the same region of the embryo and perform a particular function. ‡ Organ: a structure composed of two or more tissue types working together to carry out a particular function.

Composition of tissues
‡ Cells ‡ Extracellular matrix ‡ Tissues types differ in: ± Types and functions of cells ± Matrix characteristics ± Relative amount of space occupied by cells vs. matrix

Composition of matrix:
‡ Fibrous proteins ‡ Usually, a clear gel with a variety of names: ± Ground substance ± Tissue fluid ± Extracellular fluid (ECF) ± Interstitial fluid ± Tissue gel ‡ This may be rubbery or mineralized and hard

Embryonic tissues
‡ Three primary germ layers are formed first ± give rise to all subsequent tissues ± Ectoderm ± Mesoderm ± Endoderm

‡ Ectoderm: forms epidermis and nervous tissue. ‡ Mesoderm: forms mesenchyme which then forms bone, muscle, blood, etc. ‡ Endoderm: forms mucous membranes of the digestive and respiratory tracts, digestive glands, etc.

The four primary tissues
‡ Epithelial: develops from all 3 germ layers ‡ Connective: develops from mesoderm ‡ Nervous: develops from ectoderm ‡ Muscular: most develops from mesoderm

Histological sections

Epithelial tissue
‡ Forms sheets and glands. ‡ Sheets cover the surface of the body, line body cavities, and form internal and external linings of many organs. ‡ Glands produce secretions.

2 types of epithelial tissue:
‡ 1) covering and lining epithelia: ± the epidermis of the skin ± the outer layer of some internal organs ± the inner lining of blood vessels, ducts, and body cavities ± interior of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. ‡ 2) glandular epithelia: the secreting portions of glands ± the thyroid gland ± adrenal glands ± sweat glands etc.

(note-not all glands are epithelial)

Epithelial Tissue
‡ One or more layers of closely adhering cells ± extracellular material is so thin it is not visible ± No blood vessels
‡ depends on underlying connective tissue for oxygen

± Sits on a basement membrane
‡ anchors epithelium to underlying connective tissue

Components of epithelial tissue
‡ Basement membrane: Separates the epithelium and the connective tissue it lies upon. ‡ Basal surface (membrane) of the cell rests on the basement membrane. ‡ Apical surface (membrane) of the cell faces away from the basement membrane, often into an open space.

covering and lining epithelia
‡ Types are classified according to 2 characteristics: ± the arrangement of cells into layers ± the shapes of the cells.

Epithelial cell shapes and arrangements

Simple epithelia
‡ Simple squamous epithelium ‡ Simple cuboidal epithelium ‡ Simple columnar epithelium ‡ Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Figure 5.4

Figure 5.5

Simple columnar
‡ Nonciliated: contains apical microvilli and goblet cells. ‡ Ciliated: the apical surface has cilia.

Figure 5.6

Pseudostratified columnar epithelia:
‡ not all cells reach the apical surface. Nuclei are at different levels but all cells are attached to the basement membrane. ‡ Ciliated and non-ciliated forms. ‡ Function: secretion, and (ciliated forms) movement of mucus.

Figure 5.7

Stratified epithelia
‡ Stratified squamous epithelium ‡ Stratified cuboidal epithelium ‡ Stratified columnar epithelium (rare) ‡ Transitional epithelium

Stratified squamous

Stratified squamous, keratinized

Stratified squamous, nonkeratinized

Figure 5.12

Figure 5.10

Transitional epithelium

Connective Tissue
‡ The most abundant and variable tissue type. ‡ Cells are not in direct contact with each other but are surrounded by matrix. ‡ Volume of extracellular matrix is greater than the volume occupied by cells. ‡ The unique properties of each type of connective tissue come from the matrix. ‡ The matrix may be fluid, semifluid, calcified, etc.

Functions of connective tissues
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Binding of organs Support Physical & immune protection Movement Storage of energy Heat production Transport of materials throughout body

Cells of Fibrous Connective Tissue
‡ Fibroblasts produce fibers & ground substance of matrix. ‡ Macrophages wander through connective tissue phagocytizing foreign material & activating the immune system. ‡ Leucocytes (WBCs) wander in search of bacteria, toxins etc. ‡ Plasma cells synthesize antibodies. ‡ Mast cells secrete heparin that inhibits blood clotting and histamine that dilates blood vessels. ‡ Adipocytes store triglycerides.

Types of connective tissues
‡ Fibrous connective tissue ± Loose, dense ‡ Cartilage ± Hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage ‡ Bone ± Spongy, compact (dense) ‡ Blood

Fibers of Connective Tissue
‡ Collagenous fibers (white fibers) ± tough, resist stretch but flexible ± Found in tendons, ligaments & deep layer of the skin (dermis) ‡ Reticular fibers ± thin collagen fibers coated with glycoprotein ± form a spongelike framework for organs including the spleen & lymph nodes. ‡ Elastic fibers (yellow fibers) ± thin branching fibers made of elastin ± stretch & recoil like a rubber band ± give skin, lungs & arteries ability to stretch & recoil

Cells of connective tissues:
‡ -blasts: immature cells ± retain the capacity for cell division and secrete the matrix. ‡ -cytes: mature, differentiated cells ± have reduced capacity for cell division and matrix formation ± are mainly involved in maintaining the matrix.

Fibrous connective tissues
‡ The most diverse type of connective tissue. ‡ Contain very conspicuous fibers

Types of fibrous connective tissues
‡ Loose connective tissue: largely ground substance. ± Areolar tissue ± Reticular tissue ± Adipose tissue ‡ Dense connective tissue: fibers occupy most of the space. ± Dense regular connective tissue ± Dense irregular connective tissue

Areolar tissue
‡ Loosely organized collagenous and elastic fibers running in random directions ‡ Abundant blood vessels ‡ Surrounds and forms passageways for blood vessels and nerves. ‡ Found under all epithelia, fascia between muscles

Reticular tissue
‡ A mesh of reticular fibers and fibroblasts ‡ Forms the structural framework (stroma) of some organs and tissues. ‡ Many blood cells among the fibers.

The spleen

Adipose tissue
White fat: energy storage, insulation. ‡ Subcutaneous fat beneath skin; surrounds organs Brown fat: stores fat as heat source
‡ Produces heat, no ATP.

Dense regular connective tissue
‡ Fibers are closely packed. ‡ Collagen fibers are parallel. ‡ Fibroblasts are the only cell type. ‡ Few blood vessels. ‡ Found especially in ligaments and tendons.

Dense regular connective tissue cont.
‡ Yellow Elastic tissue: a type of dense regular connective tissue ‡ has in addition to parallel collagen fibers many elastic fibers. ± Forms elastic sheets in arterial walls, vocal cords, some ligaments

Dense irregular connective tissue
‡ Many collagen fibers ‡ Fibers run in random directions. ± Withstands stress in many directions ‡ Forms much of the dermis and protective capsules or sheaths around organs including kidneys, nerves, and bones.

Cartilage
‡ A supportive connective tissue with a flexible rubbery matrix. ‡ Chondroblasts form the matrix, become embedded in it in spaces called lacunae. ± The cells are then called chondrocytes. ‡ Little blood supply, heals slowly. ‡ Major types of cartilage depend upon types of fiber ± hyaline, fibrocartilage and elastic cartilage

Types of cartilage:
‡ Hyaline cartilage: very fine collagen fibers. ± Usually has a perichondrium (a sheath of dense irregular connective tissue) where growth occurs. ‡ Elastic cartilage: prominent elastic fibers. ± Always has a perichondrium. ‡ Fibrocartilage: prominent collagen fibers. ± Never has a perichondrium.

Hyaline Cartilage
‡ Clear, glassy matrix; fine dispersed collagen fibers; chondrocytes in small clusters enclosed in lacunae ‡ Supports airway, eases joint movements ‡ Forms fetal skeleton ‡ Covers ends of bones at movable joints; sternal ends of ribs; supportive material in larynx, trachea, and bronchi.

Elastic Cartilage
‡ Hyaline cartilage with a weblike mesh of elastic fibers amongst the lacunae. ‡ Provides flexible, elastic support ‡ External ear and epiglottis

Fibrocartilage
‡ Cartilage containing extensive parallel collagen fibers. ‡ Resists compression and absorbs shock in some joints. ‡ Pubic symphysis, menisci & intervertebral discs

Osseous tissue (bone)
‡ Spongy bone: looks like sponge due to presence of spaces. ‡ Compact (dense) bone: no spaces that are visible without a microscope. ± Forms the outside of all bones; covered by a periosteum.

Blood
‡ Cells and cell fragments (formed elements) are surrounded by a liquid ground substance (plasma). ‡ Erythrocytes: red blood cells; transport oxygen and carbon dioxide and help buffer the blood. ‡ Leukocytes: white blood cells; fight disease. ‡ Platelets: fragments of cells that function in clotting.

Excitable tissues
‡ Muscle and nervous tissue produce action potentials: rapid changes in the membrane potential. ‡ Muscle: action potentials lead to contraction. ‡ Neuron: action potentials lead to signal transmission.

Nervous tissue
‡ Neurons: nerve cells; respond to and transmit information. ‡ Neuroglia (glia): a variety of smaller but more numerous cells that support and protect the neurons.

Muscular tissue:
‡ Produces movement by contracting. ‡ 3 types: ± Skeletal muscle: striated ± Cardiac muscle: striated ± Smooth muscle: smooth

Skeletal muscle
‡Cells are long and cylindrical; called muscle fibers. ‡Most skeletal muscle is attached to bones, causing movement. ‡Characteristics: ‡Striated ‡Voluntary ‡Neurogenic. ‡Multinucleate

Cardiac muscle
‡ Found only in the heart ‡ Cells are called myocytes. ‡ Characteristics: ‡ Striated ‡ Branched ‡ Involuntary ‡ Myogenic ‡ Uninucleate ‡ Electrically coupled at intercalated discs.

Smooth muscle
‡Most is in viscera; this is called visceral muscle. ‡Lines much of the vascular system. ‡Characteristics: ‡Not striated ‡Short and fusiform ‡Involuntary ‡May be myogenic or neurogenic.

Intercellular junctions
serve one of 3 functions: 1) form fluid-tight seals between cells. 2) anchor cells together or to the extracellular material. 3) Act as channels that allow ions and molecules to pass from cell to cell within a tissue.

Tight Junctions
‡ Tight junctions completely encircle the cell ± They form fluid-tight seals between cells. These limit movement of material from one side of an epithelium to the other.

Tight Junction. enlarged

Desmosomes
‡ A connection between two cells that helps keep them from pulling apart. ± A mesh of filaments crosses the space between cells, and terminates on a thick protein plaque on each cell. ± Within the cytoplasm, intermediate filaments also attach to plaque ‡ Does not encircle the cell ‡ Common in the uterus, heart and epidermis
Desmosome enlarged

Gap Junctions
‡ Also known as communicating junctions. ‡ A ring of 6 transmembrane proteins forms a water-filled channel. ‡ Small solutes pass directly from cell to cell, coupling cells electrically. ‡ Found in embryos, cardiac & smooth muscle

Gap Junction

Glands and secretions
‡ A cell or organ that secretes substances. ‡ Exocrine glands: have a duct (an epithelial tube) that connects them with an open space or surface. ‡ Endocrine glands: have no ducts, secrete their products (called hormones) into the blood which circulates them through the body. ‡ Unicellular glands: an exocrine cell found in a non-secretory epithelium (such as goblet cells).

Types of secretions:
‡ Serous glands: secrete thin, watery fluids. ± Perspiration, tears, milk, digestive juices etc. ‡ Mucous glands: secrete mucin that then forms mucus when mixed with water. ‡ Mixed glands: contain serous and mucous cells. ± Salivary glands ‡ Cytogenic glands: release whole cells. ± Testes and ovaries

Methods of secretion
‡ Merocrine (eccrine) glands: release secretions by exocytosis. ± Tear glands, pancreas, gastric glands etc. ± Apocrine glands: a type of merocrine gland including axillary sweat glands and mammary glands. ‡ Holocrine glands: the entire cell disintegrates releasing product. ± Oil producing glands of scalp

Membranes
‡ Epithelial membranes ± Mucous membranes ± Cutaneous membranes ± Serous membranes ± Endothelium and mesothelium ‡ Non-epithelial membranes ± Synovial membranes

Mucous membranes:
‡ (mucosae): line passageways opening to the exterior. ± Produce mucus. ± Absorption, secretion, and protection.

Cutaneous membrane (skin)
stratified squamous epithelium resting on layer of connective tissue (the dermis) relatively dry, waterproof Protection

Serous membranes:
‡ line some body cavities and form the outer surface of some organs. ± A simple squamous epithelium on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue. ± Produce serous fluidsimilar to blood serum

‡ Endothelium: a simple squamous epithelium

lining the circulatory and lymphatic systems. ± Forms the:
‡ Tunica interna of blood vessels ‡ Endocardium of heart

‡ Mesothelium: a simple squamous epithelium lining the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities

Synovial membranes:
‡ Connective tissue membranes that line some joints. ‡ Do not include an epithelium. ‡ Secrete synovial fluid into the joint ± A slippery fluid.

Changes in tissue
‡ Changes in Tissue Type ± Differentiation: development of a cell or tissue from an unspecialized form to a specialized form. ± Metaplasia: a change from one type of mature tissue to another.

‡ Tissue growth ± Hyperplasia: tissue growth due to cell division. ± Hypertrophy: tissue growth due to increase in cell size. ± Neoplasia: development of a tumor of abnormal, nonfunctioning tissue

Stem cells
‡ Undifferentiated cells that give rise to other cell types. ‡ Embryonic stem cells ± Totipotent: can develop into any fully differentiated cell. ± Pluripotent: can form any cell of the embryo but cannot form the accessory organs of pregnancy. ‡ Adult stem cells ± Multipotent: may form 2 or more cell types. ± Unipotent: can only produce one mature cell type.

Tissue shrinkage and death
‡ Atrophy: shrinkage due to loss of cell number or cell size. ‡ Necrosis: premature, pathological death of tissue. ‡ Apoptosis: normal, programmed cell death. Occurs without release of cell contents. ‡ Gangrene: any tissue necrosis due to inadequate blood supply. ‡ Gas gangrene: necrosis of a wound due to infection by bacteria. ‡ Infarction: death of tissue when its blood supply is cut off.

Damaged tissues are repaired in 2 ways:
‡ Regeneration: Replacement of dead or damaged cells with functioning cells of the original cell type. ± Restores normal function to the tissue. ± skin and liver injuries regenerate readily. ‡ Fibrosis: Replacement of damaged cells with scar tissue (collagen) ± helps hold the organ together, but function is not restored ± healing of muscle or brain injuries, scarring of lung tissue in TB, or healing of severe cuts & burns of the skin.

New cells originate by cell division from:
‡ the stroma: the supporting connective tissue ‡ the parenchyma: the cells that make up the tissue or organ¶s functioning part. ± Cell division in the stroma forms scar tissue- loss of function ± Cell division in the parenchyma forms functioning cells.

‡ Epithelial cells: are continuously replacing themselves. ‡ Connective tissues: capacity varies. Bone readily renews itself. Others such as cartilage or fibrous connective tissue renew themselves much more slowly. ‡ Muscle tissue: pretty poor capacity. Smooth muscle is not bad at it, there is some renewal possible in skeletal muscle, but cardiac muscle cells do not divide to form new fibers. ‡ Nerve tissue: the poorest capacity for renewal. Damaged or destroyed neurons are not replaced. Some brain regions form new cells throughout life but most regions do not.

Skin wound healing.
‡ 2 kinds of wound-healing processes can occur, depending on the depth of the injury. ‡ Epidermal wound healing occurs following wounds that affect only the epidermis. ‡ Deep wound healing occurs following wounds that penetrate the dermis or subcutaneous layers.

Epidermal wound healing

Deep wound healing:
Stages: 1.Bleeding into the wound 2. Blood clot formation, arrival of macrophages. 3. New capillaries grow, granulation tissue forms. 4. Epithelial regeneration and connective tissue fibrosis