Physical Fitness Test

Jignesh Dhamelia

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Introduction Components Tests Benefits« Summary

Fitness incorporates physical & mental health as well as emotional satisfaction & self-awareness. Physical fitness is to the human body what fine tuning is to an engine. It enables us to perform up to our potential. Fitness can be described as a condition that helps us look, feel and do our best. More specifically, it is: "The ability to perform daily tasks vigorously and alertly, with energy left over for enjoying leisure-time activities and meeting emergency demands. It is the ability to endure, to bear up, to withstand stress, to carry on in circumstances where an unfit person could not continue, and is a major basis for good health and wellbeing."

‡ Physical fitness involves the performance of the heart and lungs, and the muscles of the body. And, since what we do with our bodies also affects what we can do with our minds, fitness influences to some degree qualities such as mental alertness and emotional stability. ‡ As you undertake your fitness program, it's important to remember that fitness is an individual quality that varies from person to person. It is influenced by age, sex, heredity, personal habits, exercise and eating practices. You can't do anything about the first three factors. However, it is within your power to change and improve the others where needed. ‡ Physical Fitness: It is the ability to carry out daily routine physical activity without being unduly tired and have ample energy to face emergency tasks as and when arise.

Components of physical fitness
‡ The components of physical fitness are:

1) Health related 2) Skill related

Cardio-respiratory endurance

Muscular strength

Muscular endurance

Health related components

Body composition

flexibility

Health related«
‡ Health Related components: Those factors that are related to how well the systems of your body work
² Cardiovascular and respiratory Fitness: The ability of the circulatory system (heart and blood vessels) and respiratory system to supply oxygen to working muscles during exercise. ² Body Composition: The relative percentage of body fat compared to lean body mass (muscle, bone, water,etc) ² Flexibility: The range of movement possible at various joints. ² Muscular strength: The amount of force that can be produced by a single contraction of a muscle ² Muscular endurance: The ability of a muscle group to continue muscle movement over a length of time.

Speed power

Agility

Skill related components

Reaction time

Balance

Coordination

Skill Related Components:
Those aspects of fitness which form the basis for successful sports participation.
² ² ² ² ² ² Speed: The ability to move quickly from one point to another Agility: The ability of the body to change direction quickly Balance: The ability to maintain an upright posture while still or moving Coordination: Integration with hand and/or foot movements with the input of the senses. Reaction Time: Amount of time it takes to get moving. Power: The ability to do strength work at an explosive pace.

Health related«
Cardiorespiratory endurance« is the corner stone to complete health and the fitness gateway to improving your other fitness levels. Cardiorespiratory endurance is defined as the ability of the heart to get oxygen rich blood to the required working muscles. It is the physical ability to maintain a steady pace of exercise without reaching an high level of fatigue and tiredness. The composition of cardiovascular endurance also includes the capacity that the body and heart have of removing CO2 from the muscles and expel via the lungs. Jogging, swimming, cycling, walking and aerobics.

Health related«
Muscular strength«is measured by the maximum amount of strength, or weight that a muscle or muscle group can lift and exert in a single effort. Of the 5 components of physical fitness, Muscular strength is directly related to the amount and type of exercise and workouts that the body undergoes. Weight training or strength training are the only methods of increasing muscle mass.

Health related«
Muscular Endurance is the ability of the person to perform movement of moderate (Sub-maximum) contractions over prolonged period of time under conditions of fatigue or tiredness. It is the product of all psychic and physical energy of human body.

Health related«
Flexibility is a part of the major components of physical fitness with more importance then is sometimes believed. Not all people have the same flexibility requirements depending on whether you are an athlete or not and the various sporting disciplines that are practiced. But everyone needs a degree of flexibility to be able to cope with daily lives and activities. So, flexibility in its purest form is defined as the ability to move your body joints and articulations through their full range of motion.

Health related«
The body composition looks at the ratio of fat in the body compared to the overall levels of lean body mass. When the body fat mass ratio is high you are considered over weight or even obese. This high fat content ratio is a sign of a higher propensity to develop coronary heart disease, diabetes, joint and back pains, arthritis and injuries due to inactivity. There is a direct link in the speed of adding pounds of fat to the lack of physical exercise and reducing the fat ratio both by diet changes, nutrition quality and regular physical exercise are key.

Health related«
Cardiorespiratory endurance test«
A person·s aerobic fitness level is dependent upon the amount of oxygen which can be transported by body to the working muscle, and the efficiency of the muscle to use that oxygen. The best test for aerobic fitness is maximum oxygen uptake(vo2 max) test. The aerobic fitness tests can be divided into« ‡ Maximal test ‡ Submaximal test

Maximal test:
1. 20 mtr shuttle run 2. Max oxygen consumption test 3. Run test for set time or distance

Submaximal test:
1. Cycle test : Astrand bicycle ergometer 2. Step test 3. Walk test: Rock port walk test 2 kms walk test

Muscular strength«is the ability of a muscle to expert or release force by contraction enabling a person to overcome resistance or to act against resistance. Types of contraction: Static or isometric Dynamic or isotonic

How to test muscular strength«?
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Weight lifting Vertical jump test Isometric test Computer assisted electromechanical testing. Standing long jump test. Callisthenic-type strength test.

Muscular Endurance: This is the quality that enables a person to sustain localized muscle group activities for the extended period of time.

How to test muscular endurance«? ‡ Dynamometers ‡ Constant resistance and variable resistance mode ‡ Isokinetic endurance test ‡ Calisthenic type endurance test: Chin ups Sit- ups

How to test flexibility«?
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Modified sit and reach test Shoulder and wrist elevation test Shoulder rotation test Static ankle flexibility test

Body composition«
Body composition refers to the make-up of the body in terms of lean tissue mass (inc. muscle, bone, tendons and ligaments) and fat tissue mass. In simple terms, body composition is all about our muscle/fat ratio, or our body fat percentage. A healthy muscle-to-fat ratio is a common (but not exclusive) indicator of fitness. A healthy body-fat percentage range for women is about 15-25 percent. For men, body fat should be in the approximate range 10-20 percent. The more lean muscle tissue you have on your body, the more calories you burn while at rest. This is because muscle mass is more metabolically active (uses up more calories) that stored body fat. People with a higher muscle-to-fat ratio (lower body fat percentage) tend to have more efficient systems and a higher fitness level.

How to Test Your Body Composition (Fat)? There are various methods of measuring body fat. These include: ‡ underwater weighing; ‡ measuring skin-fold thickness with calipers; ‡ bioelectrical impedance. ‡ Alternatively, for a quick test, check your body mass index. If it falls outside the healthy range (19-24.9), chances are you have excess fat and your body composition needs improving.

Skill related components and tests«
Speed: Speed is the ability of a person to execute motor movements with high speed in the shortest period of time. It is equal to the distance covered per unit of time. the element of speed is involved in most of the athletic skills such as in sprint running, some skills of soccer, basketball etc. Test: sprint test

Skill related components and tests«
Agility : Agility is the ability of a person to change positions in space or to change directions quickly and effectively e.g. football player quickly changes direction or giving dodge to opponent, hurdle crossing over the barrier or hurdles, zig-zag running, etc. Test: Illinois agility run

Skill related components and tests«
Balance: Balance is the ability of a person to control human body or to maintain equilibrium under static and dynamic conditions e.g. hand stand, skating, skiing, catching a fly in baseball, etc. Test: Balancing on a beam

Skill related components and tests«
Reaction time: is the time it takes for a person to respond to a signal. For e.g., sprinters need to have fast reaction times in response to the starter·s pistol. If they are slow to respond they will have a bad start and are very unlikely to win the race.

Skill related components and tests«
Coordination: is the ability to perform complex motor skills. Eg. Running while throwing, passing, catching a ball requires a lot of coordination. Test: Juggling, balancing ball, etc.

Skill related components and tests«
Power: Power is the ability of muscle to release maximum force in the shortest period of time. It is equal to force multiplied by speed. It is the combination of strength and speed. Speed and force must be combined for effective performance in activities like baseball throw, jumps for height, football kick, boxing punch etc. Test: Vertical jump test Standing long jump test

Here are some of the specific walking / running endurance tests: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Endurance Run / Walk (1 mile) 1000m (1km) Run Test APFT 2 Mile Run Test PRT 1.5 mile run test Marine PFT 3-Mile Run and 3km Run Test Cooper 12 minute test 6 Minute Run Test 6 minute Walk Test Half Mile Walk Balke Test (15 minute run) Rockport Walk Test 800 meter run test 2 km Walk Test Miller 20m Test

What is Health? What Is Physical Fitness?
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The definition of physical fitness might vary by individual but most experts agree that there are five basic components of physical fitness which involve your heart, lungs, strength, endurance, and agility or flexibility. You don't have to build muscles to this point to be physically fit. Physical fitness is much more than muscle building and involves everything from cardio respiratory fitness to being more flexible.

‡ Physical activity has a relaxation effect and can improve sleep as well as reduce mental stress and raze energy levels. ‡ Depending on the selection and variety of physical activity and sports, it can provide daily variety, fun, develop the sense of competitiveness as well as open up to a new social environment. ‡ Actually tackling physical activity will give a sense of achievement and self satisfaction of taking person health into your own hands. ‡ Will develop short term satisfaction and motivation to achieve longer term health goals. As well, the first results of an exercise plan and aerobic or stretching routine can be felt very early on.

Short term benefits from regular exercise

Long term benefits from regular exercise
‡ Lower the Risk of Heart Disease and heart attack. ‡ Significantly decrease the risk of high blood pressure. though high blood pressure also is regulated by nutrient and food intake. ‡ Low level s of bad cholesterol and reduce the risk of clogged arteries. ‡ Will raise the levels of endorphin in the body that promotes a healthy sex life. ‡ Decreases Risk of certain types of cancers such as colon cancer. ‡ Will reduce the risks of joint pains and arthritis. ‡ Reduce decalcification of the bones. ‡ Improve your metabolism and strengthen the immune system

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