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Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids (fats) Vitamins Minerals Water
A carbohydrate (CHO) is classified as
Monosaccharide: single unit sugar e.g. glucose, fructose and galactose Disaccharide: composed of two monosaccharide e.g. sucrose, maltose and lactose Oligosaccharide: short chain of 3-10 monosaccharides Polysaccharide: contains starch and fibers
All carbohydrates must be broken down into monosaccharides before the body can use them.
Major sources: grains, fruits, vegetables, milk and concentrated sweets Pure carbohydrate source: refined sugar, syrup, cornstarch Function of carbohydrates are
Major energy source during high intensity exercises Regulates fat and protein metabolism Nervous system relies exclusively on carbohydrate for energy. Muscle and liver glycogen are synthesized from carbohydrates.
Body stores excessive carbohydrate, primarily in muscle and liver as glycogen. So consumption of carbohydrate directly influences the glycogen storage and ability to train and compete in endurance events. So the imbalance between glycogen use and carbohydrate intake explains why athletes become chronically fatigued and need 48hrs to restore normal muscle glycogen level.
Simple carbohydrates (sugars) are absorbed from digestive system quickly. Because of this ingestion of simple carbohydrates causes hyperglycemia When the carbohydrates are more than can be used or stored, this excessive carbohydrates are converted to fats. This in turn elevates the concentration of triglyceride and cholesterol in blood which are associated with a higher risk of heart diseases In endurance athletes, most carbohydrates consumed is used for glycogen storage. Because training depletes their glycogen reserves, which in turn triggers increased glycogen synthesis.
Muscle glycogen provides energy during exercise. The glycogen depletion is the major source of fatigue and ultimate exhaustion in event lasting more than hour. So there should be extra storage of glycogen in muscle. Therefore, endurance athletes consume carbohydraterich diet before 3 days of events. This is called glycogen loading. Carbohydrate feeding in between exercises improves performance, maintaining the blood glucose near normal levels allows the muscles to obtain energy from blood glucose. An athlete should not consume carbohydrate food during the period of 15-45 min before the exercise because it may cause hypoglycemia after the exercises starts. But the carbohydrate feeding in between exercise does not show same effect as it can not increase the insulin and blood glucose levels.
It is a class or organic compounds with limited water solubility. It exists in body in the body in many forms such as triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids and sterols (cholesterol). Body stores most fats as triglyceride, composed of three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol. This is the most concentrated source of energy. Excessive intake of dietary fats (cholesterol and triglyceride) can be involved in heart disease, obesity, cancer and diabetes. Fatty acids is the basic unit of fats and occur in two forms: Saturated: (no double bonds so maximum amount of hydrogen bound to carbon) Unsaturated: monounsaturated or polyunsaturated (double bonds between carbon atoms, so less amount of hydrogen bound)
Sources are as follows
Animal sources (saturated fatty acids):solid at room temp, animal fats, ghee, butter, Plant sources (unsaturated fatty acid): liquid at room temp, veg oils, dalda, Important components of cell membrane and nerve fibers. Primary energy source, providing 70% energy at resting state Supports and cushions vital organs All steroids are produced from cholesterol Body heat is preserved by insulating subcutaneous fat layers. Fat soluble vitamins are get entry, stored and transported through fat layers.
Function of fats:
Fat can enhance food·s palatability by absorbing and retaining flavors and by affecting the food·s texture. Recently health consciousness has reduced the dietary fat intake from 45% to 34%. But most nutritionist recommends that fat consumption should not exceed more than 30% of total caloric intake. For the athlete, fat is especially the source of energy. Muscle and liver glycogen is limited, so the use of fat for energy production can delay the exhaustion. More use of fat is helpful in endurance performance.
Fat intake and performance:
Protein is a class of nitrogen containing compounds formed by amino acids. There are 20 amino acids necessary for human growth and metabolism. They are categorized into two
Nonessential amino acids(11C/12A): synthesized in body, Essential amino acids(8C/9A):not synthesized in body,
Sources: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, (vegetables and grains)
Major structural component of the cell Used for growth, repair and maintenance of body tissues. Haemoglobins, enzymes and many hormones are produced from protein. It is one of the three primary buffers in the control of acid-base balance. Antibodies for disease protection are formed from protein. Energy can be produced from protein.
RDA for protein depends on the body weight and body composition, so men require more protein than women. Protein Intake and performance:
Studies using metabolic-tracer and nitrogen-balance technologies have shown that overall protein and amino acids requirements are higher for individual in training than the normally active individual. Excess intake of protein may become high risk to body as it demands on kidney for excretion. In strength training amino acids are used as building blocks of muscle development and in endurance training protein is used as fuel.
They are group of unrelated organic compounds that perform specific function to promote growth and maintain health. Classification is as follows:
Fat soluble: vit-A,D,E,K Water soluble: vit-B complex and C Act as catalyst inn chemical reaction. Essential for energy release, tissue building, metabolic regulation.
Vitamins are stored in body and excess intake can cause toxicity.
Importance in athletes:
Vitamin A is crucial for normal growth and development because it plays an integral role in bone development Vitamin D is essential for intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorous and thus for bone development and strength. Vitamin K is an intermediate in the electron transport chain, making it important for oxidative phosphorylation.
These are the inorganic substances essential for normal cellular function which accounts for 4% of total body weight. Minerals are of two types:
Macrominerals are those of which our body needs more than 100 mg per day. Microminearls (trace elements) are those needed in smaller amount in body.
Though there is no caloric value of water but it maintain the life next to oxygen. TBW is about 50-60% of total body weight in typical adult. Water loss of 9-12% can be fatal. TBW= ICF+ECF Water gain at rest= fluid intake (60%) + food intake (30%) + metabolic water production (10%)
Role of water in exercise:
RBC carry oxygen to active muscle via the blood plasma, which is primarily water Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids and amino acids are transported to muscle by blood plasma CO2 and other metabolic waste products leave the cells and enter to plasma to get cleared off. Hormones that regulate metabolism and muscular activity during exercise are transported by blood plasma. Body fluid contains buffering agents to maintain pH when lactate is formed. Water facilitates the dissipation of body heat that is generated during exercise. Blood plasma volume is major determinant of BP and regulates cardiovascular function also.
Under normal resting condition, body water content is relatively constant: water intake is equal to water output. Source of water input in body:
60% from the fluid intake 30% from the food 10% from the cells during metabolism (150-250ml/day) Evaporation from skin (20%) Evaporation from the respiratory tract (15%) Excretion from the kidneys (60%) Excretion from the large intestine (5%)
Sources for water output or loss:
Water loss accelerates during exercise. Body·s ability to loose the heat generated during exercise depends upon the formation and evaporation of sweat. As the body temperature increases the sweating increase to prevent the over heating of body. Same time more water is produced because of increased oxidative metabolism; but this water input has less impact on dehydration. The amount of sweat produced is determined by the following:
Environmental temperature, radiant heat, humidity and air velocity Body size (surface area) Metabolic rate (intensity of metabolism)
Even minimal changes in body water content can impair endurance performance. Effect of dehydration of various system in body:
Physiological function Performance Cardiovascular: Blood plasma/ volume Cardiac output Stroke volume Heart rate
Metabolic Aerobic capacity Aerobic power Anaerobic capacity Buffer capacity Blood lactate Muscle and liver glycogen Blood glucose during exercise Protein degradation Thermoregulation and fluid balance Electrolytes Exercise core temp Sweat rate Skin blood flow
Muscular strength Muscular endurance Muscular power ? Speed of movement ? Run time to exhaustion Total work performance
Normal body function depends on a balance between water and electrolytes. During exercise, there is imbalance between water and electrolytes because of water loss. There are two major route of electrolytes loss
Human sweat is a filtrate of blood plasma, so it contains substances including sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Sweat is 99% water. Electrolytes concentration in sweat can vary in individual depending on following
Rate of sweating State of training State of heat acclimatization.
To clear the wastes from the blood and regulate water level, urine production regulates the body·s electrolyte content. Urine formation is the major source of electrolyte loss. At rest, electrolytes are excreted in the urine to maintain homeostatic level. But during exercise the rate of urine formation reduces to conserve water for body demand. Kidney plays an important role in electrolyte management by excreting sodium to maintain the sodium level constant. Increased sodium content triggers thirst, compelling the person to consume more water. This water intake normalizes the osmolarity and increase the fluid in extracellular compartment. This is the major mechanism in increasing plasma volume during exercise. This becomes normal within 48-72 hrs after exercise.
It is clinically defined as a blood sodium concentration below the normal range of 136143 mmol/L. Symptoms are in stages: weakness, disorientation, seizures and coma. Marathoners, who lose 3-5 l of sweat, drink 2-3 L of water to maintain the concentration of electrolyte.
Astrand proposed a plan to help the runners store the maximum amount of glycogen. This is known as glycogen loading. According to glycogen loading regimen, athlete should prepare for competition by completing exhaustive training about 7 days before the event. For 1st 3 days, they should eat fat and protein rich food almost exclusively to deprive the muscle of carbohydrate, which increases the activity of glycogen synthase. For next 3 days, athletes should eat a carbohydrate rich diet. Because glycogen synthase activity is increased, increased carbohydrate intake can result in greater muscle glycogen storage. the training intensity and volume during this 6 days is reduced to prevent the additional muscle glycogen depletion, thus maximizing liver and muscle glycogen storage.
Increase the glycogen level double than normal.
Difficult in training. Mental instability and irritability of athletes. Shows low blood glucose level: muscle weakness, disorientation