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y We always see these, appreciate and forget«

but realization can only be made by knowing how these ideas can be made practical and how our imagination is converted to reality in this era.

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SPECIAL EFECTS
GUIDED BY RAHUL RANJAN PRESENTED BY PRIYABRATA PATNAIK REDG NO-0601289088 COMPUTER SCIENCE

SEMINAR ON

CONTENTS
y INTRODUCTION y DEVELOPMENT HISTORY y COMPOSITING y SPECIAL EFFECTS ANIMATION y AUDIO EFFECTS y VISUAL SPECIAL EFFECTS TECHNIQUES

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INTRODUCTION
y Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used

in the film , television and entertainment industry to realize scenes, such as space travels, that cannot be achieved by live action or normal means.

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Special effects are traditionally divided into two types.
y Optical effects

(also called visual or photographic effects), which rely on manipulation of a photographed image.

y example of an optical effect would be a scenes in STAR

TREK depicting the USS ENTERPRISE flying through space.

y Mechanical effects

(also called practical or physical effects), which are accomplished during the live-action shooting.

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y Include mechanized props, scenery, and pyrotechnique . 4/12/2010 y examples include the ejector seat of James Bond¶s Aston

Martin

Development history
y In 1867, Oscar G. Rejlander created the world's first

"trick photograph" by combining different regions of 32 other photographs into a single image. y In 1895, Patrick Clark created what is commonly accepted as the first-ever special effect on film y In 1996, french magician George Melies accidentally discovered the "stop trick." According to Melies, his camera jammed while filming a street scene in Paris. When he screened the film, he found that the "stop trick" had caused a truck to turn into a horse, pedestrians to change direction, and men turn into women.
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y But several techniques soon developed that, like the

"stop trick," were wholly original to motion pictures. animation, creating the illusion of motion, was accomplished with drawings and with threedimensional models (most notably by Willis O¶Brien in the lost world and King Kong).

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y By 1995, films such as Toy Story underscored that the

distinction between live-action films and animated films was no longer clear. Images could be created in a computer using the techniques of animated cartoons. It is now possible to create any image entirely inside a computer and have it look completely realistic to an audience.

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COMPOSITING
y The art of compositing is that of combining two

images, or elements of two images, together into one seamless shot. y Nowadays, this is usually done digitally, and often involves the incorporation of 3D models. y Special effects artists can trace an element in a shot, and the software, such as Apple Shake, will follow that object throughout the duration of the clip. y The item can then be extracted from the shot, placed in another shot, and the edges softened or the "layer" colorized to match its new environment.

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SPECIAL EFFECTS ANIMATIONS
y special effects animation is a specialization of the

traditional animation and computer animation processes. y Special effects animation is also common in liveaction films to create certain images that cannot be traditionally filmed. In that respect, special effects animation is more commonplace than character animation, since special effects of many different types and varieties have been used in film for a century.

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AUDIO EFFECTS
y The art of adding audio effects to a film is done

through either foley pre-recorded sound effects.

y Foley is acting out the scene in a recording studio

with the necessary props, such as doors, umbrellas, shoes, or whatever the characters in the scene are doing. If a person was walking across concrete, the foley artist would probably put the shoes on his hands and tap them on concrete, while watching a screen to make sure he is doing it in sync with the character.
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VISUAL SPECIAL EFFECTS TECHNIQUE

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PRACTICAL EFFECT
y In film, the term practical effects is used to denote

those effects that are produced on-set, without the aid of computer generated imagery. "Special effects" is also usually considered to be equivalent to practical effects, whereas "visual effects" usually denotes those effects created in post-production through photographic printing or produced with the aid of a computer. y Many of the staples of action movies are practical effects. Gunfire, bullet wounds, rain, wind, fire and explosions can all be produced on a movie set by someone skilled in practical effects.

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BLUE SCREEN

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y Bluescreen (known in television as Chroma key) is a term for the

filmmaking technique of using an evenly-lit monochromatic background for the purpose of replacing it with a different image or scene. The term also refers to the visual effect resulting from this technique as well as the colored screen itself (although it is often not blue: for example, with greenscreen).

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COMPUTER GENERATED IMAGERY
y Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the

application of the field of computer graphics to special effects. CGI is used in films, television programmes and commercials, and in printed media. Video games most often use real-time computer graphics , but may also include pre-rendered ³cutscenes´ and intro movies that would be typical CGI applications. These are referred to as FMV. y CGI is used for visual effects because the quality is often higher and effects are more controllable than other more physically based processes, such as constructing miniatures for effects shots or hiring extras for crowd scenes, and because it allows the creation of images that would not be feasible using any other technology.
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y Computer software such as MAYA and 3ds MAX are

used to make computer-generated imagery for movies, etc. Recent accessibility of CGI software and increased computer speeds has allowed individual artists and small companies to produce professional grade films, games, and fine art from their home computers. This has brought about an Internet subculture with its own set of global celebrities, clichés, and technical vocabulary.

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MORPHING
y Morphing is a special effect in motion pictures and

animation that changes (or morphs) one image into another through a seamless transition. Most often it is used to depict one person turning into another through some magical or technological means or as part of a fantasy or surreal sequence. Traditionally such a depiction would be achieved through crossfading techniques on film. Since the early 1990s, this has been replaced by computer software to create more realistic transitions.

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MOTION CONTROL PHOTOGRAPHY
y Motion control photography is a special effects

technique used in film that creates the illusion of size from small models by moving a small camera by the model at very slow speeds. It was first widely used in star wars episode IV: a new hope, which led to that movie's groundbreaking visuals, and has since become a standard technique for almost all films.

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ROTOSCOPING

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y Rotoscoping is an animation technique in which

animators trace over live-action film movement, frame by frame, for use in animated frames Originally, prerecorded live-action film images were projected onto a frosted glass panel and re-drawn by an animator. This projection equipment is called a rotoscope, although this device has been replaced by computers in recent years. More recently, the rotoscoping technique has been referred to as interpolated rotoscoping.

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SOME ANIMATED SCENES

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REFFERENCES
y Special Effects: The History and Technique by

Richard Rickitt y Movie Magic: The History of Special Effects in the Cinema by John Brosnan (1974) y www.wiekiepedia.com

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HANK YOU

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