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9.

3 PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
Large scale electricity generation is obtained through turbine movements using hydro, thermal, nuclear or solar energy resources. Penjanaan elektrik berskala besar diperolehi melalui gerakan turbin menggunakan hydro, thermal, sumber tenaga nuklear atau solar.

9.3.3 NUCLEAR
The word nuclear refers to the nucleus of an atom. When an atom splits, a vast amount of thermal energy is released. In a nuclear power plant, this heat is used to heat up the water contained in the boiler. The steam produced is used to rotate the turbine. The turbine shaft to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Perkataan "nuklear" merujuk pada nukleus atom. Ketika atom berpecah, sejumlah besar tenaga haba dilepaskan. Dalam penjanaan elektrik tenaga nuklear, haba ini akan digunakan untuk memanaskan air yang terdapat dalam boiler. Stim yang dihasilkan digunakan untuk memutarkan turbin. Syaf turbin digunakan untuk menukar tenaga mekanikal kepada tenaga elektrik.

The main substance used to obtained nuclear energy is a radioactive substances such as uranium 235, uranium 238, barium and krypton. These substances have unstable atoms that are easily split when neutron are made to collide against them. To control the splitting of atoms, only one new neutron is obtained. Substansi utama yang digunakan untuk tenaga nuklear yang diperolehi adalah zat radioaktif seperti uranium 235, uranium 238, barium dan Kripton. Zat ini mempunyai atom yang tidak stabil yang mudah berpecah ketika neutron dibuat untuk berbenturan terhadap mereka. Untuk mengawal pemisahan atom, hanya satu neutron baru diperolehi.

To obtain continuous heat energy from every split that happens, the speed of the neutron has to be reduced using a graphite materials as shown in Figure 9.5. This material is called a moderator.

In a nuclear power plant, atom splitting takes places in the reactor. The reactor core contains graphite blocks complete with openings to be filled with uranium rods or isotopes (fuel). The reactor wall is built of thick concrete. Heat produced in the reactor is transferred out by pumping gas through the rod slots. Heat energy from the hot gas will be transferred to the boiler, which then converts water into high pressure steam. The steam us conveyed to the turbine to turn the generator in order to generate electricity as shown in figure 9.6.

Another method used to obtain energy through atom splitting is by using the small atoms such as hydrogen or deuterium (heavy hydrogen). This method is considered safer than the one using uranium. Hydrogen gas can be obtained from sea water.