You are on page 1of 38

Business

Research Methods

William G. Zikmund

Chapter 9:
Survey Research
Surveys

Surveys ask respondents for information


using verbal or written questioning
Respondents
Respondents are a
representative
sample of people
Gathering Information via
Surveys
• Quick
• Inexpensive
• Efficient
• Accurate
• Flexible
Problems

• Poor Design
• Improper Execution
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Random sampling
error

Total
error

Systematic
error (bias)
Random Sampling Error

• A statistical fluctuation that occurs because


of change variation in the elements selected
for the sample
Systematic Error

• Systematic error results from some


imperfect aspect of the research design or
from a mistake in the execution of the
research
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

Administrative
error

Systematic
error (bias)

Respondent
error
Sample Bias

• Sample bias - when the results of a sample


show a persistent tendency to deviate in one
direction from the true value of the
population parameter
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

Nonresponse
error

Respondent
error

Response
bias
Respondent Error

• A classification of sample bias resulting


from some respondent action or inaction
• Nonresponse bias
• Response bias
Nonresponse Error

• Nonrespondents - people who refuse to


cooperate
• Not-at-homes
• Self-selection bias
• Over-represents extreme positions
• Under-represents indifference
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

Deliberate
falsification
Response
bias

Unconscious
misrepresentation
Response Bias

• A bias that occurs when respondents


tend to answer questions with a certain
slant that consciously or unconsciously
misrepresents the truth
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

Acquiescence bias

Extremity bias

Interviewer bias

Auspices bias

Social desirability bias


Acquiescence Bias

• A category of response bias that results


because some individuals tend to agree with
all questions or to concur with a particular
position.
Extremity Bias

• A category of response bias that results


because response styles vary from person to
person; some individuals tend to use
extremes when responding to questions.
Interviewer Bias

• A response bias that occurs because the


presence of the interviewer influences
answers.
Auspices Bias
• Bias in the responses of subjects caused by
the respondents being influenced by the
organization conducting the study.
Social Desirability Bias

• Bias in responses caused by respondents’


desire, either conscious or unconscious, to
gain prestige or appear in a different social
role.
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

Administrative
error

Systematic
error (bias)

Respondent
error
Administrative Error

• Improper administration of the research task


• Blunders
• Confusion
• Neglect
• Omission
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

Data processing error

Sample selection error

Interviewer error

Interviewer cheating
Administrative Error
• Interviewer cheating - filling in fake answers
or falsifying interviewers
• Data processing error - incorrect data entry,
computer programming, or other procedural
errors during the analysis stage.
• Sample selection error -improper sample
design or sampling procedure execution.
• Interviewer error - field mistakes
C L A S S I F Y I N G
S U R V E Y
R E S E A R C H
M E T H O D S

M E T H O D S T R U C T U TR E E MD P O R A
O F A N D D I S QC UL AI S S E S D I F I C
C O M M U N I CQ A U T E I OS TN I O N S
Time Period for Surveys

• Cross-sectional
• Longitudinal
Cross-Sectional Study
• A study in which various segments of a
population are sampled
• Data are collected at a single moment in
time.
Longitudinal Study
• A survey of respondents at different times,
thus allowing analysis of changes over time.
• Tracking study - compare trends and
identify changes
– consumer satisfaction
Consumer Panel
• A longitudinal survey of the same sample of
individuals or households to record (in a
diary) their attitudes, behavior, or
purchasing habits over time.
Total Quality Management and
Customer Satisfaction Surveys
• Total quality management - A business
philosophy that emphasizes market-driven
quality as a top organizational priority.
Stages in Tracking Quality
Improvement

Initial Continuous
Commitment Bench- quality Quality
and marking improve- Improvement
Exploration ment
Commitment and Exploration
Stage
• Management makes a commitment to total
quality assurance
• Business researchers explore external
customers’ needs and problems.
• Business researchers explore internal
customers’ needs, beliefs, and motivations.
Benchmarking Stage
• Research establishes quantitative measures
as benchmarks or points of comparison
• Overall satisfaction and quality ratings of
specific attributes
• Employees actual performance and
perceptions
Initial Quality Improvement Stage

• Tracking wave 1 measures trends


• Establishes a quality improvement process
within the organization.
• Translate quality issues into the internal
vocabulary of the organization.
• Establish performance standards and
expectations for improvement.
Continuous Quality Improvement
• Consists of many consecutive waves with
the same purpose—to improve over the
previous period.
• Quality improvement management
continues.
Determinants of the Quality of
Goods
• Performance
• Features
• Conformance with specifications
• Reliability
• Durability
• Serviceability
• Aesthetic design
Determinants of Service Quality

• Access
• Communication
• Competence
• Courtesy
• Reliability
• Credibility