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# Planning CAI

Lessons

Dr. Ennis-Cole
CECS 5130

Designing Lesson
Sequences
1. Fixed Lesson Sequences
2. Avoid Unnecessary
Information
3. Review Past Information

Top-Down
Programming
Problems:
Inflexible Finite Procedures
Difficulty Maintaining
Difficulty Debugging
Useless - Start Over

Flowcharting
1. Linearity
+Maintain Control
+Minimize Complexity
- No Individual Differences
-Inflexible, Unnecessary

Branching
Branching
+ Instructional vs. Program
+ Forward
+ Backward
+ Random
+ Conditional

Branching

## 1. Instructional vs. Program

As it Pertains to a Lesson
Avoiding Practice Routines, Taking the Test

2. Forward

## Moving to a point Further in the lesson

Lesson or Student Control

Branching

1. Backward
Moving from a Current Point to a Previous Pt.
Repetition of Lesson Segments
Returning to Main Menus, Help Sequences or
Instructions

2. Random

## Useful when Sequencing in Unimportant

Unfixed Order of Lesson Execution

Branching

## Absolute vs. Conditional

Absolute occurs at fixed points within the
lesson, and will occur in all cases
Conditional occurs only under prescribed
conditions

Branching

Absolute
Has nothing to do with lesson performance or a
students wishes
Fixed - occur at given points

Branching

Conditional

## Executes only under prescribed circumstances

Student Request, Difficulty
Mastery Levels can be built-in
Permits Lesson Control

Infinite
Loops
Programming
and
Conceptual

Conceptual Loops
More easily observed in constructed response
formats dependent on spelling, or rules of
grammar
More easily produced in tasks that are difficult
for the student to comprehend

Conceptual
Loops
Error Counters, Conditions for alternative
branching
Judge responses appropriately consider
issues of case, spelling, multiple responses
Prompt students guide them to structure
appropriate responses by the wording of
questions

of CAI

Tutorials

## Present New information, skills, or concepts

Self-Contained
Verification and Reinforcement
Well-Defined Objectives
Appropriate Feedback
Direct Students, Guide Responses
Expectations Stated Early

Tutorials
Factual Information, Simple
Discriminations, Rules, Applications
of Rules, Learners Pace
Themselves

Limitations of Tutorials
1. Design Time
2. Difficulty Teaching High-Ordered Skills
3. Duplication of Instruction
4. Complexity and Practicality

## Drill & Practice

Practice well-defined Skills
Offer Immediate Feedback
Avoid Unchecked Error Responses
Clear Directions
Assume Basic Information was
Taught Elsewhere
Minimize Unrelated Narrative and
Procedural complexity

## Limitations of Drill &

Practice
1. Electronic Flash Cards,
Responses only
2. Process Remains Uncovered
3. Limited Potential

Simulations
1. Alternative Teaching Systems
2. Cause-and-Effect Relationships
can be Studied, Thinking, Evaluation
3. Eliminate Danger, difficulty
4. Scenarios, High-fidelity images,
Believable Circumstances
5. Emphasis on Processes,
Procedures

Simulations
Problem

Sophistication
Cost Issues
Lesson Design

Instructional
Games

Competition, Develop, Reinforce, and refine
aspects of learning
Well understood, Provides explicit guidelines
and participatory rules
Attractive and motivational

Instructional
Games