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MEBS 6008

Heat Pumps

Heat Pump

What Is a Heat Pump?

A heat pump is a self-contained, packaged cooling-and-heating unit with a

reversible refrigeration cycle.

A heat pump is basically a device that transfers heat from one substance
to another substance.

It has these same basic refrigeration components: compressor, condenser,

evaporator, and expansion device.

The difference is that it can also reverse the refrigeration cycle to

perform heating, as well as cooling, by reversing the functions of the two
heat exchangers.

The operation of the refrigeration cycle changes depending on whether

the unit is in cooling or heating mode.

Heat pump is generally reserved for equipment that heats for beneficial
purposes, rather than that which removes heat for cooling only.

Heat Pump

What Is a Heat Pump?

Dual-mode heat pumps alternately provide heating or cooling.

Heat reclaim heat pumps provide heating only, or simultaneous

heating and cooling.

An applied heat pump requires competent field engineering for

the specific application, in contrast to the use of a manufacturerdesigned unitary product.

Built-up heat pumps (field- or custom-assembled from

components) and industrial process heat pumps are two types.

Heat Pump

Heat Pump Cycles

Most modern heat pumps use a vapor compression (modified

Rankine) cycle or an absorption cycle.
Although most heat pump compressors are powered by
electric motors, limited use is also made of engine and
turbine drives.
Applied heat pump systems are most commonly used for
heating and cooling buildings, but they are gaining popularity
for efficient domestic and service water heating, pool
heating, and industrial process heating.

Heat Pump

Introduction of heat source and heat pump system

Heat sources include the ground, well water, surface water,

gray water, solar energy, the air, and internal building heat.

Frequently, heating and cooling are supplied simultaneously

to separate zones.

Decentralized systems with water loop heat pumps are

common, using multiple water-source heat pumps connected
to a common circulating water loop.

They can also include ground coupling, heat rejecters

(cooling towers and dry coolers), supplementary heaters
(boilers and steam heat exchangers), loop reclaim heat
pumps, solar collection devices, and thermal storage.

Heat Pump

Review of a Typical Vapour Compression Cycle

Heat Pump

Refrigerant enters the evaporator in the

form of a cool, low-pressure mixture of
liquid and vapor (I).

Heat is transferred to the refrigerant

from the relatively warm air or water to
be cooled, causing the liquid refrigerant to

The resulting vapor (II) is then pumped

from the evaporator by the compressor,
which increases the pressure and
temperature of the refrigerant vapor.

The resulting hot, high-pressure

refrigerant vapor (III) enters the
condenser where heat is transferred to
ambient air or water, which is at a lower

Inside the condenser, the refrigerant

condenses into a liquid.

Review of a Typical Vapour Compression Cycle

Heat Pump

This liquid refrigerant (IV) then flows

from the condenser to the expansion

The expansion device creates a

pressure drop that reduces the
pressure of the refrigerant to that of
the evaporator.

At this low pressure, a small portion of

the refrigerant boils (or flashes),
cooling the remaining liquid refrigerant
to the desired evaporator temperature.

The cool mixture of liquid and vapor

refrigerant (I) travels to the
evaporator to repeat the cycle.

Heat Pump Cycle

A heat pump cycle comprises the same processes
and sequencing order as a refrigeration cycle
except that the refrigeration effect q14 or qrf,
and the heat pump effect q23 ,both in J/kg, are
the useful effects.


h4 h1 = enthalpy of refrigerant entering and

leaving evaporator, respectively,
J /kg
Win = work input, J/kg

The coefficient of performance of the heating

effect in a heat pump system COPhp is

Heat Pump

Basic types of heat pump cycles:

Closed vapor compression cycle

This is the most common type used in both HVAC and industrial

It employs a conventional, separate refrigeration cycle that may be

single-stage, compound, multistage, or cascade.

Heat Pump

Basic types of heat pump cycles:

Mechanical vapor recompression cycle with heat exchanger

Process vapor is compressed to a temperature and pressure

sufficient for reuse directly in a process.

Energy consumption is minimal, because temperatures are optimum

for the process.

Typical applications for this cycle include evaporators

(concentrators) and distillation columns.

Heat Pump


Basic types of heat pump cycles:

Open vapor recompression cycle

A typical application for this cycle is in an industrial plant with a

series of steam pressure levels and an excess of steam at a lowerthan-desired pressure.

The heat is pumped to a higher pressure by compressing the lower

pressure steam.

Heat Pump


Basic types of heat pump cycles:

Heat-driven Rankine cycle

This cycle is useful where large quantities of heat are wasted and
where energy costs are high.

The heat pump portion of the cycle may be either open or closed, but
the Rankine cycle is usually closed.

Heat Pump




Outdoor air is a universal heat-source and heat-sink medium for heat

pumps and is widely used in residential and light commercial systems.

Extended-surface, forced-convection heat transfer coils transfer

heat between the air and the refrigerant.

Typically, the surface area of outdoor coils is 50 to 100% larger than

that of indoor coils.
The volume of outdoor air handled is also greater than the volume of
indoor air handled by about the same percentage.
During heating, the temperature of the evaporating refrigerant is
generally 6 to 11 K less than the outdoor air temperature.

Heat Pump




When selecting or designing an air-source heat pump, the

outdoor air temperature in the given locality and frost
formation in particular must be considered.

As the outdoor temperature decreases, the heating capacity

of an air-source heat pump decreases.

This makes equipment selection for a given outdoor heating

design temperature more critical for an air source heat pump
than for a fuel-fired system.
The equipment must be sized for as low a balance point as is
practical for heating without having excessive and
unnecessary cooling capacity during the summer.

Heat Pump




When the surface temperature of an outdoor air coil is 0C or less, with

a corresponding outside air dry-bulb temperature 2 to 5.5 K higher, frost
may form on the coil surface.

If allowed to accumulate, the frost inhibits heat transfer; therefore,

the outdoor coil must be defrosted periodically.

The number of defrosting operations is influenced by the climate, air-coil

design, and the hours of operation.
It was found that little defrosting is required when outdoor air
conditions are below 10C and 60% rh (confirmed by psychrometric

Heat Pump




Under very humid conditions, when small suspended water droplets

are present in the air, the rate of frost deposit may be about three
times as great as predicted from psychrometric analysis.
The heat pump may require defrosting after only 20 min of
The loss of available heating capacity due to frosting should be
taken into account when sizing an air source heat pump.
Early designs of air source heat pumps had relatively wide fin
spacing of 5 to 6 mm, based on the theory that this would minimize
the frequency of defrosting.
With effective hot-gas defrosting a much closer fin spacing is
permitted that reduce size and bulk of the system.
In current practice, fin spacing of 1.3 to 2.5 mm are widely used.

Heat Pump




City water is seldom used because of cost and municipal


Groundwater (well water) is particularly attractive as a heat

source because of its relatively high and nearly constant

The water temperature is a function of source depth and climate

(Any information on water temperature of HKs situation ?).

Frequently, sufficient water is available from wells for which the

water can be re-injected into the aquifer.

The use is non consumptive and, with proper design, only the water
temperature changes.

Heat Pump




The water quality should be analyzed, and the possibility of scale

formation and corrosion should be considered.
In some instances, it may be necessary to separate the well fluid
from the equipment with an additional heat exchanger.
Special consideration must also be given to filtering and settling
ponds for specific fluids.
Other considerations are the costs of drilling, piping, pumping, and
a means for disposal of used water.
Information on well water availability, temperature, and chemical
and physical analysis is available from U.S. Geological Survey
offices in many major cities (Again, Hong Kongs situation?)

Heat Pump




Heat exchangers may also be submerged in open ponds, lakes, or

When surface or stream water is used as a source, the temperature
drop across the evaporator in winter may need to be limited to
prevent freeze-up.
In industrial applications, waste process water (e.g., spent warm
water in laundries, plant effluent, and warm condenser water) may
be a heat source for heat pump operation.
Sewage, which often has temperatures higher than that of surface
or groundwater, may be an acceptable heat source.
Secondary effluent (treated sewage) is usually preferred, but
untreated sewage may used successfully with proper heat
exchanger design.

Heat Pump




The ground is used extensively as a heat source and sink, with heat
transfer through buried coils.
Soil composition, which varies widely from wet clay to sandy soil, has
a predominant effect on thermal properties and expected overall
performance. The heat transfer process in soil depends on transient
heat flow.
Thermal diffusivity is a dominant factor and is difficult to
determine without local soil data.
Thermal diffusivity is the ratio of thermal conductivity to the
product of density and specific heat.
The soil moisture content influences its thermal conductivity.

Heat Pump



Solar Energy

Solar energy may be used either as the primary heat source or in

combination with other sources.
Air, surface water, shallow groundwater, and shallow ground-source
systems all use solar energy indirectly.
Using solar energy directly as a heat source for heat pumps can
provide heat at a higher temperature than the indirect sources,
resulting in an increase in the heating coefficient of performance.
Compared to solar heating without a heat pump, the collector
efficiency and capacity are increased because a lower collector
temperature is required.

Heat Pump



Solar Energy
There are two basic types of solar-source heat pumps systems direct
and indirect.

The direct system places refrigerant evaporator tubes in a solar

collector, usually a flat-plate type. A collector without glass cover
plates can also extract heat from the outdoor air.

The same surface may then serve as a condenser using outdoor air
as a heat sink for cooling.

Heat Pump



Solar Energy
Indirect system
An indirect system circulates either water or air through
the solar collector.
When air is used, the collector may be controlled in such a
way that :

Heat Pump

The collector can serve as an outdoor air


The outdoor air loop can be closed so that all

source heat is derived from the sun, or

The collector can be disconnected from the

outdoor air serving as the source or sink.



In an air-source heat pump system, outdoor air acts as a heat source

from which heat is extracted during heating, and as a heat sink to
which heat is rejected during cooling.
Since air is readily available everywhere, air-source heat pumps are
the most widely used heat pumps in residential and many commercial
The cooling capacity of most air-source heat pumps is between 1 and
30 tons (3.5 and 105 kW).
Air-source heat pumps can be classified as individual room heat pumps
and packaged heat pumps.
Individual room heat pumps serve only one room without ductwork.
Packaged heat pumps can be subdivided into rooftop heat pumps and
split heat pumps.

Heat Pump



Roof top package unit

Heat Pump

Split System Heat Pump



Most air-source heat pumps consist of :

Heat Pump

Coils through which air is


Outdoor Single or multiple


Indoor coils where heat is extracted

from or rejected to the outdoor air,

Expansion valve

Reversing valves that change the

heating operation to a cooling
operation and vice versa,

An accumulator to store liquid

refrigerant, and other accessories.



Indoor Coil

In an air-source heat pump, the indoor coil is not necessarily located

inside the building.

The indoor coil in a rooftop packaged heat pump is mounted on the


But, an indoor coil always heats and cools the indoor supply air.

During cooling operation, the indoor coil acts as an evaporator.

It provides the refrigeration effect to cool the mixture of outdoor and

re-circulating air when the heat pump is operating in the re-circulating

During heating operation, the indoor coil acts as a condenser.

The heat rejected from the condenser raises the temperature of the
conditioned supply air.

For heat pumps using halocarbon refrigerants, the indoor coil is usually
made from copper tubing and corrugated aluminum fins.

Heat Pump



Outdoor Coil

The outdoor coil acts as a condenser during cooling and as an

evaporator to extract heat from the outdoor atmosphere during

When an outdoor coil is used as a condenser, a series-connected

subcooling coil often subcools the refrigerant for better system

An outdoor coil always deals with outdoor air, whether it acts as a

condenser or an evaporator.

Like the indoor coil, an outdoor coil is usually made of copper

tubing and aluminum fins for halocarbon refrigerants.

Plate or spine fins are often used instead of corrugated fins to

avoid clogging by dust and foreign matter.

Heat Pump



Reversing Valve

Reversing valves are used to guide the direction of refrigerant flow

when cooling operation is changed over to heating operation or vice
The rearrangement of the connections between four ways of flow
compressor suction, compressor discharge, evaporator outlet, and
condenser inletcauses the functions of the indoor and outdoor
coils to reverse. It is also called a four-way reversing valve.
The efficiency losses altogether with leakage, heat transfer, and
the pressure drop across the reversing valve cause a decrease of 4
to 7 percent in heat pump performance.
Other accessories include filter dryer, sight glass, strainer, liquid
level indicator, solenoid valves, and manual shutoff valves.


Reciprocating and scroll compressors are widely used in heat pumps.

Heat Pump



Expansion Device

A variety of expansion devices may be used in heat pumps.

The most common types are thermal expansion valves (TXV), electronic
expansion valves, and capillary tubes.

All of these devices reduce the pressure and temperature of the

refrigerant within the cycle.

Expansion valves, such as the TXV, have the added capability of metering
the quantity of refrigerant flowing through the cycle in order to match the
load to enhance the efficiency of the cycle.

TXVs used in heat pumps may be bi-directional (that is, refrigerant flows
in one direction when in cooling mode and in the opposite direction when in
heating mode).

Another way is to design the refrigerant piping inside the heat pump to
ensure that refrigerant flow through the valve is in the same direction in
either mode.

Heat Pump



Cooling Mode

When the discharge air temperature sensor detects an increase in

the air temperature above a predetermined limit at the exit of the
indoor coil, cooling is required in the air-source heat pump.
The indoor coil now acts as an evaporator and extracts heat from the
conditioned air flowing through the indoor coil.
After evaporation, vapor refrigerant from the indoor coil passes
through the sliding connector of the slide and flows to the suction
Hot gas discharged from the compressor is led to the outdoor coil,
which now acts as a condenser.
An economizer cycle can be used when an outdoor air sensor detects
the outdoor temperature dropping below a specific limit during
cooling mode.

Heat Pump



Heating Mode

When the discharge air sensor detects a drop in air

temperature below a predetermined limit at the exit of the
indoor coil, heating is required.

The outdoor coil now acts as an evaporator.

When the discharge air temperature sensor detects a drop in

air temperature further below preset limits, the electric
heater (that is supplementary heater) would be energized in
steps to maintain the required discharge air temperature.

Heat Pump



Heating Mode

Supplementary heating is energized only when the space

heating load cannot be offset by the heating effect of the heat

ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 stipulates heat pumps

equipped with internal electrical resistance heaters shall have
controls to prevent supplemental heater operation when the
heating load can be met by the heat pump alone during heating
or setback recovery.

Heat Pump



Cycling Loss and Degradation Factor

For split packaged air-source heat pumps, indoor coils are located
inside the building and outdoor coils are mounted outdoors.

When an on/off control is used for the compressor, during the off
period, refrigerant tends to migrate from the warmer outdoor coil
to the cooler indoor coil in summer and from the warmer indoor
coil to the cooler outdoor coil during winter.

When the compressor starts again, the transient state

performance shows that a 2- to 5-min operating period of reduced
capacity is required before the heat pump can operate at full

Such a loss due to cycling of the compressor is called cycling loss.

Heat Pump


Water-to-Air Heat Pumps

These heat pumps rely on water as the heat source and sink, and use
air to transmit heat to, or from, the conditioned space. They include
the following:

1) Groundwater heat pumps

2) Surface water heat pumps

Heat Pump


Water-to-Air Heat Pumps

Groundwater heat pumps

They use groundwater from wells as a heat source and/or


These systems can either circulate the source water

directly to the heat pump or use an intermediate fluid in a
closed loop, similar to the ground-coupled heat pump.

Surface water heat pumps

They use surface water from either a lake, pond, or

stream as a heat source or sink.

Similar to the ground-coupled and groundwater heat

pumps, these systems can either circulate the source
water directly to the heat pump or use an intermediate
fluid in a closed loop.

Heat Pump


Water-to-Air Heat Pumps

Internal-source heat pumps

They use the high internal cooling load generated in modern

buildings either directly or with storage.

These include water loop heat pumps.

Solar-assisted heat pumps

They rely on low-temperature solar heat as the heat source.

Solar heat pumps may resemble water-to air, or other types,

depending on the form of solar heat collector and the type of
heating and cooling distribution system.

Heat Pump


Water-to-Air Heat Pumps

Wastewater-source heat pumps

They use sanitary waste heat or laundry waste heat as a heat


The waste fluid can be introduced directly into the heat pump
evaporator after waste filtration, or it can be taken from a
storage tank, depending on the application.

An intermediate loop may also be used for heat transfer between

the evaporator and the waste heat source.

Heat Pump


Water-to-Water Heat Pumps

These heat pumps use water as the heat source and sink for cooling and

Heating-cooling changeover can be done in the refrigerant circuit, but it

is often more convenient to perform the switching in the water circuits.

Direct admittance of the water source to the evaporator is one


Alternatively, applying the water source indirectly through a heat

exchanger (or double-wall evaporator) to avoid contaminating the closed
chilled water system, which is normally treated may be necessary.

Heat Pump


Ground-Coupled Heat Pumps.

These use the ground as a heat source and sink.

A heat pump may have a refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger or

may be of the direct-expansion (DX) type.

In systems with refrigerant-to-water heat exchangers, a water or

antifreeze solution is pumped through horizontal, vertical, or
coiled pipes embedded in the ground.

Heat Pump


Ground-Coupled Heat Pumps

Direct expansion ground-coupled heat pumps use refrigerant in
direct expansion, or flooded evaporator circuits for the ground
pipe coils.

Heat Pump


Ground-Coupled Heat Pumps

Soil type,moisture content, composition, density, and

uniformity close to the surrounding field areas affect the
success of this method of heat exchange.

With some piping materials, the material of construction

for the pipe and the corrosiveness of the local soil and
underground water may affect the heat transfer and
service life.

In a variation of this cycle, all or part of the heat from

the evaporator plus the heat of compression are
transferred to a water-cooled condenser.

This condenser heat is then available for uses such as

heating air or domestic hot water.

Heat Pump


Refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger

It may be a tube-in-tube, tube-in-shell, or brazed-plate design.

The example shown here is a tube-in-tube, or coaxial, heat


It is constructed as a small tube running inside another larger tube.

The water flows through the inner tube and refrigerant flows
through the outer tube.

In the cooling mode, the refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger acts

as the condenser.

The water flowing through the inner tube absorbs heat from the
refrigerant flowing through the outer tube.

In the heating mode, it acts as the evaporator and the refrigerant

absorbs heat from the water.

Heat Pump


Benefits of using water-source heat pump

In the heat recovery mode => saves energy by reducing the operating
time of the cooling tower and boiler.

Allowing different space temperature in many spaces with dissimilar

cooling and heating requirements (each independently controlled space
is served by its own heat pump and own thermostat).

The same piece of equipment is used to provide both cooling and heating
to the space. Even though a separate cooling tower and boiler may be
included in the system, only one set of water pipes is required. This can
reduce the system installation cost.

A water-source heat pump system typically requires less mechanical

floor space than centralized systems. This increases the rentable space
and revenue in tenant-occupied buildings.

If one heat pump fails and must be replaced, it does not affect the
operation of the rest of the system.

Heat Pump


Key issues associated with water source heat-pump system.

Outdoor air for ventilation may bring a few challenges. Most

commercial buildings have a separate, ducted



Next, because a heat pump is located in, or very close to, the
occupied space and contains both a compressor and a fan, the
resulting noise level in the space must be considered during
system design.

Proper maintenance of the heat pumps requires that they be

located in accessible areas. Units that make access as easy as
possible increases the chance that the equipment will be
properly maintained.

Heat Pump


Water-source heat pumps

Configurations available to suit various building types.
Horizontal units

Horizontal units are designed for installation in ceiling plenums,

especially for spaces where floor space is at a premium.

Typical applications include offices and schools.

Heat Pump


Water-source heat pumps

Vertical units

Vertical units are designed to be installed in separate spaces

such as closets or maintenance rooms.

Common applications for small vertical units include schools,

apartments, condominiums, and retirement homes.

Larger vertical units are generally used in spaces that are

more open, such as cafeterias and gymnasiums, or used as a
dedicated ventilation system to condition the outdoor air
brought into the building.

Heat Pump


Water-source heat pumps

Console units

They are designed for installation under windows, in

perimeter spaces or in entryways, where ducted systems
cannot be used and floor space is not a constraint.

Typical applications include offices, apartment buildings,

motels, and dormitories.

Because of their rugged design, they are typically used in


Heat Pump


Water-source heat pumps

Vertical-stack units

They are designed for corner installation in multistory

buildings such as hotels, apartments, condominiums, and
retirement centers, where a minimum amount of floor
space is available.

They are designed to be stacked above each other to

minimize piping and electrical installation costs.

Heat Pump


Heat adder & rejecter

Water-source heat pumps

Ground loop

Heat Pump

Use of water to water heat pump


Water-source heat pumps

Operating strategy
Warm weather

Water-source heat pumps can run in either heating or cooling


During warm weather, when all the heat pumps are operating
in cooling mode, heat removed from the air is transferred to
the water loop.

This causes the temperature of the water in the loop to rise,

making it necessary to remove heat from the water.

A cooling tower or evaporative water cooler rejects this heat

to the outdoor air, maintaining a leaving-water temperature
of approximately 32C.

Heat Pump


Water-source heat pumps

Operating strategy
Cold weather

During cold weather, when most of the heat pumps are operating
in heating mode, heat is removed from the water loop and
transferred to the air.

This causes the temperature of the water in the loop to drop,

making it necessary to add heat to the water loop.

A boiler or water heater adds heat to the water loop,

maintaining a leaving-water temperature of approximately 16C.

Heat Pump


Water-source heat pumps

Operating strategy
Mild Weather

During mild weather, such as spring and fall, the heat pumps serving
the sunny side and interior of the building operate in cooling mode and
reject heat into the water loop.

The heat pumps serving the shady side of the building operate in
heating mode and absorb heat from the water loop.

Heat rejected by the units operating in cooling mode can be used to

offset the heat absorbed by the units in heating mode.

If the water temperature stays between 16C and 32C, neither the
boiler nor the cooling tower need to operate.

Under this situation, a water-source heat pump system provides a form

of heat recovery and an opportunity to save energy.

In case heat generated by lights, people, and office equipment may

require year-round cooling in the interior spaces, this heat recovery
further reduces boiler operation during the winter months.

Heat Pump


Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems

A ground-source heat pump uses the earth as the heat rejecter

and heat adder.

These systems take advantage of the earths relatively constant

temperature, and use the ground or surface water as the heat
rejecter and heat adder.

Ground-source heat pump systems dont actually get rid of heat

they store it in the ground for use at a different time.

During the summer, the heat pumps absorb heat from the building
and store it in the ground.

When the building requires heating, this stored heat can be

recaptured from the ground.

In a perfectly balanced system, the amount of heat stored over a

given period of time would equal the amount of heat retrieved.

Heat Pump


Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems

In a properly designed ground-source heat pump

system, neither cooling tower nor boiler may be
necessary that saves initial cost and floor space.

Ground-source heat pump systems offer the potential

for operating-cost savings when compared to the
traditional cooling-tower-and-boiler system.

However, a significant amount is on the installation cost

of the ground heat exchanger.

Installation requires excavation, trenching, or boring,

and in some areas there are very few qualified
contractors for installing the ground heat exchanger.

Heat Pump


Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems

There are several types of ground-source systems
Ground-coupled system

This system uses a closed system of special, high-density polyethylene

pipes that are buried in the ground at a depth that takes advantage of the
earths natural heat sink capabilities.

When the building cooling load causes the temperature of the water loop to
rise, heat is transferred from the water, flowing through the buried pipes,
to the cooler earth.

Conversely, when the temperature of the water loop begins to fall, the
water flowing through the buried pipes absorbs heat from the earth.

In a properly designed, ground-coupled system, operating and maintenance

costs are low because a cooling tower and boiler are not required in the

Heat Pump


Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems

Pipe pattern

The pipes that make up the ground heat exchanger can be oriented
in a vertical or horizontal pattern.

The choice depends on available land, soil conditions, and

excavation costs.

Vertical loops

Vertical loops are the most common in commercial applications

due to the limited land generally available.

Vertical bore holes are drilled to depths of 60 to 150 m, with a

diameter of 10 to 20 cm each.

Heat Pump


Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems

Horizontal loops
Horizontal loops are often considered when adequate land is available.
Historically, horizontal loops consisted of a single layer of pipe buried in
the ground using a trencher.

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Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems

Multiple-layer horizontal loops

With the limited of land for installation, multiple-layer horizontal

loops have been adopted.

While less land and trenching is required, more total length of

piping is required compared to a single layer loop.

The pipes are placed in trenches, typically 1.8 m deep and spaced
1.8 to 4.6 m apart.

Trench length can range from 8.7 to 34.7 m/kW.

Heat Pump


Water-to-water Heat Pump

Unit Selection Procedure
Determine the system design conditions for source and load-side(s) of the equipment
Entering liquid temperatures for the source-side can be-1.1 oC to 49oC
Entering liquid temperatures for the load-side 7oC to 49oC
Define the selection parameters.
Entering water temperature,
Fluid flow rate, and
Fluid pressure drop.
Determine unit requirements.
Total cooling capacity/total heating
Staging of capacity to satisfy cooling requirements.
Pressure drop reduction through the load-side of multiple units, even when a single unit might
meet capacity.
Antifreeze will be required in the fluid loop if source-side leaving water temperature falls
below 1oC.

Heat Pump