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Slide 12.

Chapter 12
Analysing quantitative data

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.2

Quantative data analysis (1)


Key points
Data must be analysed to produce information
Computer software analysis is normally used for this

process

Data should be carefully prepared for analysis


Researchers need to know how to select and use

different charting and statistical techniques

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.3

Quantative data analysis (2)


Main concerns
Preparing, inputting and checking data
Choosing the most appropriate statistics to describe

the data
Choosing the most appropriate statistics to examine

data relationships and trends


Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.4

Preparing, inputting and checking data (1)


Main considerations
Type of data (scale of measurement)
Data format for input to analysis software
Impact of data coding on subsequent analyses
Case weighting
Methods for error checking
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.5

Preparing, inputting and checking data (2)


Defining the data type

Saunders et al. (2009)


Figure 12.1 Defining the data type
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.6

Preparing, inputting and checking data (4)


A simple data matrix

Saunders et al. (2009)


Table 12.1 A simple data matrix
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.7

Preparing, inputting and checking data (5)


Main data categories for coding
Numerical data
Categorical data
Missing data

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.8

Preparing, inputting and checking data (6)


Final stages of the process
Entering data rubbish in = rubbish out!
Weighting cases
Always take time to check for errors including

illegitimate codes, illogical relationships and that


rules were followed in filter questions

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.9

Exploring and presenting data (1)


Exploratory analysis can include:
Specific values
Highest and lowest values
Trends over time
Proportions
Distributions
Sparrow (1989)

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.10

Exploring and presenting data (2)


Checklist Box 12.8

Complete the Checklist in Box 12.8


to help you design diagrams and tables

Saunders et al. (2009)

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.11

Exploring and presenting data (3)


Showing aspects of individual variables
Specific values
Highest and lowest values
Trends
Proportions
Distribution of values
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.12

Examples of diagrams (1)


Bar Chart

Source: adapted from Eurostat (2007) European Communities, 2007


Reproduced with permission
Figure 12.2 Bar chart
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.13

Examples of diagrams (2)


Histogram

Saunders et al. (2009)


Figure 12.4 Histogram
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.14

Examples of diagrams (5)


Pie chart

Saunders et al. (2009)


Figure 12.8 Pie chart
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.15

Exploring and presenting data (4)


Comparing variables to show
Specific values and independence
Highest and lowest values
Proportions
Trends and conjunctions

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.16

Exploring and presenting data (5)


Comparing variables to show
Totals
Proportions and totals
Distribution of values
Relationship between cases for variables

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.17

Describing data using statistics (1)


Statistics to describe a variable focus on
two aspects
The central tendency
The dispersion

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.18

Describing data using statistics (2)


Describing the central tendency
To represent the value occurring most frequently
To represent the middle value
To include all data values

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.19

Describing data using statistics (3)


Describing the dispersion
To state the difference between values
To describe and compare the extent by which values

differ from the mean

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.20

Examining relationships, differences and


trends
Using statistics to
Test for significant relationships and differences
Assess the strength of relationship
Examine trends

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.21

Summary: Chapter 12
Data for quantitative analysis can be collected and

then coded at different scales of measurement

Data type constrains the presentation, summary and

analysis techniques that can be used

Data are entered for computer analysis as a matrix

and recorded using numerical codes

Codes should be entered for all data values


Existing coding schemes enable comparisons
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

Slide 12.22

Summary: Chapter 12
Data must be checked for errors
Initial analysis should use both tables and diagrams
Subsequent analyses involve describing data and

exploring relationships by using statistics


Longitudinal data may necessitate different

statistical techniques

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009