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Volcano

and
Volcanis
m

Volcanism
Is the phenomenon
connected with volcanoes
and volcanic activity. It
brings magma from the
mantle within a planet and
rises to the surface as a
Volcano
volcanic eruption.
Mountain or hill formed by
the accumulation of materials
erupted through one or more
openings in the earth’s
surface called volcanic vents

The different parts of a Volcano ven t Ash cloud crater Parasitic Cone throat flank Conduit (pipe) Ash lava sill Cross-section through a volcano .

the material erupted adds another layer to the growing volcano. Magma can erupt through one or more volcanic vents. Once tiny droplets of magma are formed. called fissure vent. or a long crack. The processes that cause the magma to rise are poorly understood . with each eruption. they begin to rise because the magma is less dense than the solid rock surrounding it. they join to form ever-larger blobs and move towards the surface. which can be a single opening . squeezing into spaces between minerals within the solid rock. but it generally moves upward toward lower pressure regions.VOLCANO FORMATION All volcanoes are formed by the accumulation of magma. whether explosive or nonexplosive. As the individual magma droplets rise. . a cluster of openings.

If the magma is very fluid.o Lava lava is magma that breaks the surface and erupts from a volcano. or pyroclastic material. are released from volcanoes during eruptions. P AND A Volcanic Materials . is made of rock fragments formed by explosive shattering of sticky magma. o Tephra Tephra. o Gases Primarily in the form of steam. it flows rapidly down the volcano's slope.

Instead. Volcanic Plateaus Some of the largest volcanic features on earth do not actually look like volcanoes. gently sloping mound-like shapes that resemble the fighting shields that ancient warriors carried into battle.Types of VOLCANOES A. D. nearly flat-topped accumulations of erupted materials. Cinder Cones and Composite Volcanoes Cinder cones and composite volcanoes have the familiar cone like shape that people most often associate with volcanoes. Shield Volcanoes Shield volcanoes get their name from their distinctive.lying area that forms when the ground collapses because of explosive eruption can explode the top off of the mountain or eject all of the magma that is inside the volcano. B. . C. Caldera A caldera is a round or oval-shaped low. they form extensive.

Very violent explosive eruptions are called Plinian eruptions. . as is typical for Hawaiian volcanoes. Explosive Eruptions can eject liquid and semisolid lava as well as solid fragments of volcanic or nonvolcanic rock that have been carried along by the rising magma before eruption. The lava comes out of rifts in the sides of the volcano. Nonexplosive Eruptions if the eruption is nonexplosive. lava flows are produced.Eruption volcanoes erupt differently depending on the composition of the magma beneath the surface. the amount of gas in the magma. after Roma naturalist Pliny the Elder . or vents in a rift. Tephra is rarely ejected during a nonexplosive eruption . and the type of vent from which it erupts.

with lesser amounts of carbon dioxide. sulfur gases.Volcanic Hazards Volcanic Gases sample from present day volcanoes indicated the 50% to 80% of all volcanism gases are water vapor. pressure. Formation of lava melting of solid rock to form magma is controlled by three physical parameters: its temperature.nitrogen.especially sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. . and composition.

Pahoehoe Pahoehoe lavas are thin.fluid basalt. They flows smoothly and are often formed by small volumes of hot . The higher the volume of lava emitted the faster the current .

walls and forests.Aa Aa flows are animated with sporadic bursts of energy. They may push down houses. the hallmark of aa lava flows is the very rough surface it produces when it cools and solidifies . However.

 a number of increases in small earthquakes or tremors around a volcano  Emission of gas and steam from a volcano. . most of the time the cone starts to swell or bulge just before a eruption.  The temperature of rocks in the volcanic cone increase  Changes in the shape of the volcanic cone.Sign that a volcano is going to erupt.

Magma molten rock beneath Earth’s surface .

shape formed by an accumulation of volcanic debris .Parasitic Cone a small cone.

Sill a flat piece of rock formed when magma hardens in a crack in a volcano .

Vent an opening Earth’s surface through which volcanic materials escape. .

Flank the side of a volcano .

Lava molten rock that erupts from a volcano that solidifies as it cools .

Crater mouth of a volcano-sounds a volcanic vent. .

Conduit an underground passage magma travels through .

. The part of the conduit that ejects lava and volcanic ash.Throat entrance of a volcano.

.Ash fragments of lava or rock smaller than 2 mm in size that are blasted into the air by volcanic explosions.

Ash cloud explosions. a cloud of ash formed by volcanic .