This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Presented by : SANDEEP RANA SAI JIN YOON PRATEEK MUDGAL PRASHANT MANKOTIA PARDEEP PATEL.
y In a rural agrarian labour surplus economy, sections of rural population
depend on the wages they earn through unskilled, casual, manual labour. They are vulnerable to the possibility of sinking from transient to chronic poverty in the event of inadequate labour demand or in the face of unpredictable crises that may be general in nature, like natural disasters or personal, like ill-health, all of which adversely impact their employment opportunities.
y In the context of poverty and unemployment, workfare programmes
have been important programme interventions in developed as well as developing countries for many years.
y These programmes typically provide unskilled manual workers with
short-term employment on public works such as irrigation infrastructure, afforestation, soil conservation and road construction. The rationale for workfare programmes rests on some basic considerations. The programmes provide income transfers to poor households during critical times and therefore enable consumption smoothing specially during slack agricultural seasons or years.
y In countries with high unemployment rates, transfer benefits from workfare
programmes can prevent poverty from worsening, especially during lean periods. Durable assets that these programmes may create have the potential to generate a second-round of employment benefits as necessary infrastructure is developed. The need to evolve a mechanism to supplement existing livelihood sources in rural areas was recognized early during Development Planning in India.
y The NREGA, the flagship programme of the UPA government, was
revolutionary in its promise of inclusive growth, the right to work and the dignity of labour and a rational, participatory relationship with the State. And it has mostly delivered«
y The first and the primary focus should be to examine its impact on the
human resource base of rural India. Has it energized, mobilized, empowered, and delivered to India¶s poorest and most marginalized rural people? Secondly, has it provided those who were ³not shining´ a measure of dignity, tangible economic benefit, and a motivation to participate in local action?
Political Factors Behind NREGA.
The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, (NREGA) was notified on September 7, 2005.
y OBJECTIVE OF THE ACT y The objective of the Act is to enhance livelihood security in rural areas
by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.
NREGA GOALS Strong social safety net for the vulnerable groups by providing a fallback employment source, when other employment alternatives are scarce or inadequate Growth engine for sustainable development of an agricultural economy. Through the process of providing employment on works that address causes of chronic poverty such as drought, deforestation and soil erosion, the Act seeks to strengthen the natural resource base of rural livelihood and create durable assets in rural areas.
y Key Stakeholders are: y i) Wage seekers y ii) Gram Sabha y iii) Gram panchayat y iv) Programme Officer at the block level y v) District Programme Coordinator y vi) State Government y vii) Ministry of Rural Development
Application for job card Verification Issue of job card Demand for employment Acknowledgement of demand Work allocation Maintenance of muster roll Payment of wages Selection of works Approval of shelf of projects Informing village PRI Preparation of estimates And approvals
Issues critical to fulfillment of NREGA objective
y Obtaining and acknowledging applications for employment
To ascertain choices and perceptions of households regarding lean season employment. To ensure exercise of the right to employment within the time specified of fifteen days. To ensure that works are started where and when there is demand for labour, not demand for works the process of issuing a dated acknowledgement for the application for employment needs to be scrupulously observed.
Selection of works by gram sabha in villages and display after approval of shelf of projects To ensure public choice, transparency and accountability and prevent material intensive, contractor based works and concocted works records. Execution of Works At least half the works should be run by gram panchayats. Maintenance of muster roll by executing agency -numbered muster rolls which only show job card holders must be found at each work.
Regular measurement of work done according to a schedule of rates.
y Supervision of Works by qualified technical personnel on time. y Reading out muster rolls on work site during regular measurement to
prevent bogus records and payment of wages below prescribed levels Payment of wages through banks and post offices to close avenues for use of contractors, and corruption.
NREGA: Fundamental Principles
y Employment on demand. y Legal right. y Universal entitlement. y Participatory approach. y Accountability to PRIs.
(PRIs ± Panchayati Raj Institutions).
y Full transparency.
NREGA: Basic Entitlements
y Employment within 15 days of application. y Unemployment allowance. y Work within 5 kilometres. y Minimum wages. y Payment within 15 days. y No gender discrimination. y Basic worksite facilities.
Worksite Management & Facilities
Rest Shed For Workers
Health Check up for Job Card Holders
Toilet at ever worksite for women workers.
Special Focus towards aged & disabled
y The work is organized through the Panchayat system and the poor have a stake in the work right at the beginning. y Special emphasis has been given to the rights of workers and they have been made fully aware of their entitlements.
All the payments are made only through the individual bank accounts of workers. This is the ultimate preventer of corruption.
Implementation of NREGA has contributed to very high levels of women empowerment, particularly in the following aspects. As the work is organized by women¶s groups, the gender perspective gets built in automatically.
y As women are comfortable working along with their neighbors, nearly
80% of the workers have been women.
y For the first time equal wages are really paid and this has boosted the
earnings of women. As the wages are paid into Bank accounts the habit of thrift which was already inculcated through the Kudumbashree(Kerela) experiment has further been strengthened. As the Bank deposits are increasing, the intra-household status of the woman has also been improving commensurately as she controls substantial cash resources and withdrawal can be only on her decision.
y Enabling Articulation of Demand for Employment. y Planning for Works and the Quality of Assets Created y Participation of Marginalized Group.
(SC/ST/Schedule tribe). About 70 per cent of works under the NREGA are "green jobs" such as water harvesting, a forestation and land development. ± Which helps Govt. in fighting global warming. NREGA - programme is implemented in such a way so that the drought hit areas are benefited.
y Creation of Rooftop Rainwater
Harvesting Structure at 31 Blocks & 277 Gram Panchayats.
Participation of Women
Participation of SC & ST
Participation of Minority
Participation of Economically Backward Section
Benefits and Shortcoming of NREGA. About 4.5 crore households across the country benefited from the pioneering National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in the financial year 2008-09, an increase of 32 per cent over the previous year, According to the Economic survey. The NREGS, the flagship programme of the previous United Progressive Alliance (UPA), aimed at generating jobs in the rural areas, provided employment to over 4.47 crore households in the previous fiscal. "This is a significant jump over the 3.39 crore households covered under the scheme during 2007-08," the Survey noted.
Out of the 215.63 crore person-days created under the scheme during this period (2008-09). 29 per cent and 25 per cent were in favour of SC and ST population, respectively, and 48 peer cent of the total persondays created went in favour of women," According to Survey.
y According to the Survey, agriculture debt waiver and relief schemes
implemented in 2008-09 helped in restoring institutional credit to farmers apart from reviving investment in rural areas.
SOCIAL AUDIT y Social Audit is a process wherein the community does an inspection, openly in public, of the quality, income-expenditure, profit-loss of a project, development work or a programme being carried out in its area. y Accountability of a person carrying out a work is an important method of ensuring that the work is carried out properly.
Major Objectives of Social Audit :
y Developing among the people a culture to question, encouraging the
people to protect and assert their rights and benefits;
y Seeking people¶s participation in decision making process in local
y Empowering the people particularly the marginalized; bringing about
transparency in works, projects, programmes and organizations, etc.
y A study by think-tank National Council of Applied Economic Research
(NCAER) and NGO Public Interest Foundation (PIF) has found many flaws in National Rural Employment Guarantee Act/scheme (NREGA), including funds not reaching its intended beneficiaries, significant inflation in official numbers regarding creation of actual jobs and man-days as well as red - tapism blocking proper implementation.
y ³Cases of corruption, fudging in muster rolls, discrepancies in work
days and payments have been reported in almost all studies,´
y The report cited field surveys, social audits and independent studies to
show that in many cases, there was even discrimination against SCs, women and the disabled. ³The northern region (of the country), in particular, has extremely low levels of women participation,´ it said.
y According to data provided on the NREGA website, maintained by the
Ministry of Rural Development, the percentage of job cards issued to registered households varies across states. For some states like Maharashtra it stands at 12%, while for others such as Andhra Pradesh it is over 90%. y Delay in distribution of job cards y The point of concern, however, is not just the percentage of issue of job cards but the percentage of distribution of job cards. Though job cards have been prepared across most states, in many states they have not reached the people, thereby restricting their right to demand work.
y Unsolicited fees being charged for work application forms y Fees for application forms are being charged in many states like
Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand. The fee ranges from Rs 5 to Rs 50 in some states. Forms are also sold openly in local markets. This flouts the NREGA guidelines that state that applications may even be submitted to the gram panchayat on a plain piece of paper.
y Absence of worksite facilities y The NREGA provides for facilities for safe drinking water, shade for
children, periods of rest and a first-aid box at the work site. Some reports from the field in Orissa, Chhattisgarh , Jharkhand , Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat observe a complete lack of facilities at the worksite
y Presence of contractors y Like in many other rural development programmes, contractors are
increasingly becoming a threat to the NREGA. Though this may not be very apparent on the surface, private contractors are slowly finding their way into the system.
y Delays in wage payments have always been a matter of concern in
previous employment programmes, and this issue continues to plague the NREGA. Wage payments are delayed for weeks, sometimes months. The time lag varies from state to state.
y Payment of less than the minimum wage y In many states, workers do not earn minimum wages. For instance, in
Gujarat¶s Sabarkantha district the paid wage is as low as Rs 4 to Rs 7; in Kalahandi district (Bhawanipatna block) of Orissa workers earn between Rs 40-Rs 50, whereas the minimum wage is Rs 55. Women are paid even less ² about Rs 30 per day. In some states like Jharkhand, workers are paid as little as Rs 10.
Give us Good Marks , we have worked hard on this.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.