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Electricity & Magnetism

Seb Oliver
Lecture 15:
Examples of Biot-Savart Law

Summary: Lectures 14 & 15


Biot-Savart Law

0 ds r
I
2

4
r

dB

0 I
(Field produced by wires)
B
2R
Centre of a wire loop radius R
NI
B 0
Centre of a tight Wire Coil with N turns
2R
Distance a from long straight wire

Force between two wires


Definition of Ampere

0 I
B
2a

F 0 I1 I 2

l
2a

Using the Biot-Savart Law


Example 1:
A wire loop

Examples of using the BiotSavart Law


Some examples are quite hard and show
how difficult it is to use this Law
In a real situation you might use a computer
to calculate the magnetic field due to the
wire
Next week we will discover Amperes Law
which is often much easier to use

Magnetic Field from


a Current Loop
Direction:

0 ds r
dB
I
2

4
r
ds

B is always out of
screen
dB

ds is always to r
0 I ds r
dB
2

4 r

r
ds
0 I
2
4R

B d

Magnitude:

ds

0 I
2
4R

ds

0 I
2R
2
4R

0 I

ds
2
4R

0 I
2R

Using the Biot-Savart Law


Example 2:
A tight coil

Magnetic Field from a tight


coil I.e. many current loop
Direction:

ds

Magnitude:

as for a single
loop
1 loopCurrent I
N loops Current NI

0 I
B
2R
B

0 NI
2R

Using the Biot-Savart Law


Example 3:
A long Straight wire

Magnetic Field from a Straight


wire
a
tan

a
sin
r r

ds

ds dx

Magnetic Field from a Straight


wire
tan

a
x
r
a

ds

dB

Magnetic Field
a Straight
0 from
ds r
I
2

wire
4
r

ds dx

Magnitude:
Direction:

ds r ds r sin

dx sin

B is always out of
a
It turns out it is easier if
screen
r
sin
we get everything in
dB
terms of
2
0 I
r

sin

dB
I
sin dx

ds
4

a
r

sin
2

sin 3

2
a

dx

Magnetic Field from a Straight


wire
tan

a
x
r
a

ds

Now we have to use calculus!

ds dx

a
x
tan
0 I
dB

sin 3

2
a

Magnetic Field
from a Straight
Magnitude:
wire

dx
a

d sin 2

dx

0 I

sin 3

2
a

a
dx
d
2
sin

a
d
2
sin

0 I

sin d

4a

0 I
0 I
0 I
0 I
180
B dB
sin

cos

0

4a
4a
2a
4a

Other examples of Magnetic field


Centre of a wire loop radius R

0 I
B
2R

Centre of a tight Wire Coil with N turns


B

0 NI
2R

Distance a from long straight wire


0 I
B
2a

Magnetic Force Between Two


Parallel Wires

Magnetic Force Between Two


Parallel Wires
A current carrying wire in a magnetic field
feels a magnetic force
A current carrying wire generates a
magnetic field
Thus two current carrying wires will exert a
force on each other

Magnetic Force Between Two


Parallel Wires
I
1

Magnetic field at
wire 1 from wire 2
I2
B2

0 I 2
B2
2a
Magnetic Force
on wire 1 due to
B2 (everything )

FB I1l1 B2

I1l1 0 I 2 0 I1 I 2
FB

l1
2a
2a

Magnetic Force Between Two


Parallel Wires
I
1

Magnetic field at
wire 1 from wire 2
I2
B2

B2
Magnetic Force
on wire 1 due to
B2 (everything )

FB

0 I 2
2a

FB I1l1 B2

Magnetic Force
Between Two
Parallel Wires

I1l1 0 I 2 0 I1 I 2

l1
2a
2a

Force on wire 1
due to wire 2

0 I1 I 2
F1
l1
2a

From Newtons 3rd Law


(& symmetry) Force on
wire 2 due to wire 1

0 I1 I 2
F2
l2
2a

Force / unit length

F 0 I1 I 2

l
2a

Definition of Ampere

F 0 I1 I 2

l
2a

IfIf the
the magnitude
magnitude of
of the
the force
force per
per unit
unit
length
length between
between 22 parallel
parallel wires
wires carrying
carrying
identical
identical currents
currents and
and separated
separated by
by 1m
1m isis
-7
210
210-7N/m
N/m then
then the
the current
current in
in each
each wire
wire
isis 1A
1A
Definition
Definition of
of aa Coulomb:
Coulomb: IfIf aa current
current of
of
1A
1Aisis passing
passing through
through aa wire
wire then
then 1C
1C of
of
charge
charge passes
passes aa surface
surface in
in 1s
1s

Quiz
I1 = 2A, I2 = 6A
(a) F1 = 3F2
(b) F1 = F2
(c) F1 = F2/3

Summary: Lectures 14 & 15


Biot-Savart Law

0 ds r
I
2

4
r

dB

0 I
(Field produced by wires)
B
2R
Centre of a wire loop radius R
NI
B 0
Centre of a tight Wire Coil with N turns
2R
Distance a from long straight wire

Force between two wires


Definition of Ampere

0 I
B
2a

F 0 I1 I 2

l
2a