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Basic Concepts related to electricity and magnetism for understanding

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You are on page 1of 19

Seb Oliver

Lecture 15:

Examples of Biot-Savart Law

Biot-Savart Law

0 ds r

I

2

4

r

dB

0 I

(Field produced by wires)

B

2R

Centre of a wire loop radius R

NI

B 0

Centre of a tight Wire Coil with N turns

2R

Distance a from long straight wire

Definition of Ampere

0 I

B

2a

F 0 I1 I 2

l

2a

Example 1:

A wire loop

Some examples are quite hard and show

how difficult it is to use this Law

In a real situation you might use a computer

to calculate the magnetic field due to the

wire

Next week we will discover Amperes Law

which is often much easier to use

a Current Loop

Direction:

0 ds r

dB

I

2

4

r

ds

B is always out of

screen

dB

ds is always to r

0 I ds r

dB

2

4 r

r

ds

0 I

2

4R

B d

Magnitude:

ds

0 I

2

4R

ds

0 I

2R

2

4R

0 I

ds

2

4R

0 I

2R

Example 2:

A tight coil

coil I.e. many current loop

Direction:

ds

Magnitude:

as for a single

loop

1 loopCurrent I

N loops Current NI

0 I

B

2R

B

0 NI

2R

Example 3:

A long Straight wire

wire

a

tan

a

sin

r r

ds

ds dx

wire

tan

a

x

r

a

ds

dB

Magnetic Field

a Straight

0 from

ds r

I

2

wire

4

r

ds dx

Magnitude:

Direction:

ds r ds r sin

dx sin

B is always out of

a

It turns out it is easier if

screen

r

sin

we get everything in

dB

terms of

2

0 I

r

sin

dB

I

sin dx

ds

4

a

r

sin

2

sin 3

2

a

dx

wire

tan

a

x

r

a

ds

ds dx

a

x

tan

0 I

dB

sin 3

2

a

Magnetic Field

from a Straight

Magnitude:

wire

dx

a

d sin 2

dx

0 I

sin 3

2

a

a

dx

d

2

sin

a

d

2

sin

0 I

sin d

4a

0 I

0 I

0 I

0 I

180

B dB

sin

cos

0

4a

4a

2a

4a

Centre of a wire loop radius R

0 I

B

2R

B

0 NI

2R

0 I

B

2a

Parallel Wires

Parallel Wires

A current carrying wire in a magnetic field

feels a magnetic force

A current carrying wire generates a

magnetic field

Thus two current carrying wires will exert a

force on each other

Parallel Wires

I

1

Magnetic field at

wire 1 from wire 2

I2

B2

0 I 2

B2

2a

Magnetic Force

on wire 1 due to

B2 (everything )

FB I1l1 B2

I1l1 0 I 2 0 I1 I 2

FB

l1

2a

2a

Parallel Wires

I

1

Magnetic field at

wire 1 from wire 2

I2

B2

B2

Magnetic Force

on wire 1 due to

B2 (everything )

FB

0 I 2

2a

FB I1l1 B2

Magnetic Force

Between Two

Parallel Wires

I1l1 0 I 2 0 I1 I 2

l1

2a

2a

Force on wire 1

due to wire 2

0 I1 I 2

F1

l1

2a

(& symmetry) Force on

wire 2 due to wire 1

0 I1 I 2

F2

l2

2a

F 0 I1 I 2

l

2a

Definition of Ampere

F 0 I1 I 2

l

2a

IfIf the

the magnitude

magnitude of

of the

the force

force per

per unit

unit

length

length between

between 22 parallel

parallel wires

wires carrying

carrying

identical

identical currents

currents and

and separated

separated by

by 1m

1m isis

-7

210

210-7N/m

N/m then

then the

the current

current in

in each

each wire

wire

isis 1A

1A

Definition

Definition of

of aa Coulomb:

Coulomb: IfIf aa current

current of

of

1A

1Aisis passing

passing through

through aa wire

wire then

then 1C

1C of

of

charge

charge passes

passes aa surface

surface in

in 1s

1s

Quiz

I1 = 2A, I2 = 6A

(a) F1 = 3F2

(b) F1 = F2

(c) F1 = F2/3

Biot-Savart Law

0 ds r

I

2

4

r

dB

0 I

(Field produced by wires)

B

2R

Centre of a wire loop radius R

NI

B 0

Centre of a tight Wire Coil with N turns

2R

Distance a from long straight wire

Definition of Ampere

0 I

B

2a

F 0 I1 I 2

l

2a

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