BASIC HEAT TREATMENT TRAINING

(REV.-0)
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HEAT TREATMENT
• WHAT IS HEAT TREATMENT ? • WHY IS IT REQUIRED ? • TYPES OF HEAT TREATMENT

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WHAT IS HEAT TREATMENT
• MATERIALS TREATED BY APPLICATION OF HEAT NORMALLY DONE IN SOLID STATE • VARIOUS SOURCES OF HEAT • PARAMETERS ARE HEATING RATE,SOAKING TEMP,SOAKING TIME,COOLING RATE AND COOLING MEDIA
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WHY IS IT REQUIRED ?
• TO ENHANCE MATERIAL PROPERTIES / EASE IN FABRICATION BY CHANGING – Strength,Improve corrosion resistance – Toughness/Ductility – Hardness,Dimensional stability etc – Remove diffusible hydrogen to avoid hydrogen cracking • CARRIED OUT IN FABRICATION INDUSTRIES ,STEEL PLANTS, FOUNDRY, FORGING SHOPS etc..

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TYPES OF HEAT TREATMENT
• • • • • • NORMALIZING ANNEALING STRESS RELIEVING SOLUTION ANNEALING-Mainly SS HARDENING TEMPERING
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NORMALIZING
• The steel is heated to 40° C above the upper critical temperature(910 ºc) followed by cooling in the still air. Normalizing is done to achieve the following : • To get Uniform structure and reduce chemical gradients • To change Mechanical properties,
– UTS,YS – Hardness – Impact properties

• To refine the grains

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ANNEALING
• In this process, the steel is heated from 10 to 50°C above the upper critical temperature(910ºc) and held for the desired length of time; followed by very slow cooling in the furnace
Annealing is done to achieve following :

• to soften the steel and improve ductility • to relieve internal stresses caused by previous treatment 7

SOLUTION ANNEALING
In Stainless steels , it is heated to 1050°C or above ,and held for the desired time; followed by quenching/blowing the air(cooling to room temperature within few minutes). Solution annealing is done on stainless steel and non ferrous alloys to achieve following: • To soften the material • To dissolve carbide precipitation formed at grain boundaries during manufacturing process 8 • To improve Corrosion Resistance

STRESS RELIEVING
The steel is heated to a temperature below or close to the lower critical point, followed by desired rate of cooling and there is no change in grain structure. Stress relieving is done to achieve following : • To reduce Internal Stresses (residual Stresses) • To soften the steel partially • To improve ductile-brittle transition temp. and equalize impact values

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STRESS RELIEVING
C-Mn , C-Mo , Cr-Mo (< 2% Cr)
• C - Mn Steels , C - Mo Steels,Cr-Mo Steels
– SA 515Gr 70 , SA204GrA, SA387GR11CL1

• Temperature : 593 C Min
– Normally 600 - 640 C,650-690 C

• Time : 15 minutes min
– Time : 1 hr / inch

• Heating Rate : 200 C per hr per inch • Cooling Rate : 260 C per hr per inch
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STRESS RELIEVING
Cr-Mo Steels
Cr - Mo Steels (Cr >2%)
– SA 335P22 ,SA335P5

• Temperature : 676 C Min
– Normally 680 - 700 C 2.25Cr – 704 - 720 C 5 Cr

• Time : 15 mts min
– Time : 1 hr / inch

• Heating Rate : 200 C per hr per inch • Cooling Rate : 260 C per hr per inch

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STRESS RELIEVING
Ni -Steels
• Nickel Steels : 1,2,3% Ni
– SA 203 GrA ,D

• Temperature : 593 C Min
– Normally 600 - 640 C,650-690 C

• Time : 60 mts min
– Time : 1 hr / inch

• Heating Rate : 200 C per hr per inch • Cooling Rate : 260 C per hr per inch
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STRESS RELIEVING
Steels enhanced by Heat Treatments
• Q&T Steels :
– 9.5% Ni Steels , SA 517 Gr E

• Temperature : 538 C Typ
– Normally < 600 C

• Time : Minimum 15 minutes to 2 Hr
– Time : 1 hr / inch

• Heating Rate : 200 C per hr per inch • Cooling Rate : 260 C per hr per inch
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FURNACE PARTS AND THEIR ATTACHMENTS

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LAYOUT OF A TYPICAL FURNACE (Electrical or Gas fired )
FURNACE
THERMOCOUPLE COMPENSATING CABLE

JOB

RECORDER

P.I.D.

CONTROLLING BURNER

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THERMOCOUPLES
• PRINCIPLE OF A THERMOCOUPLE • THERMOCOUPLE MATERIALS

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PRINCIPLE OF THERMOCOUPLE
The basic principle of thermoelectric thermometry is that a thermocouple develops an emf which is a function of the difference in temperature of its measuring junction & reference junction. If the temperature of reference junction is known, the temperature of the measuring junction can be determined by measuring the emf generated in the circuit.
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THERMOCOUPLE MATERIAL REQUIREMENT
1. High coefficient of thermal emf. 2. Continuously increasing relation of emf to temperature over a long range. 3. Freedom from phase changes or other phenomenon giving rise to discontinuity in temperature emf relationships. 4. Resistance to oxidation, corrosion and contamination. 5. Homogeneity and reproducibility to fit an establish temperature & emf relationship. SPEED OF RESPONSE MAY BE IMPROVED AND RADIATION & CONDUCTION ERRORS MAY BE REDUCED 18 BY THE USE OF SMALL DIAMETER THERMOCOUPLES.

TYPES OF THERMOCOUPLE
K type : Material Nickel based Properties : : Chromel ( 10 %Cr ) + Alumel

+ ( 2 % Al ) Magnetic

Non-Magnetic +

In this type of thermocouple, the wires are joined at one end only to form a point-type temperature sensor. Instrumentation converts the millivolt signal to related temperature. 19

TYPES OF THERMOCOUPLE contd...
K type : Dia : Insulation coated Attachment Usability Location Color 2.5 mm Bare(ceramic) Mech Reusable PIT F/c 0. 7 mm Refractory Capacitor Disposable except PIT F/c Red & Yellow
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CONSTRUCTION OF A K TYPE THERMOCOUPLE
White Color White/yellow

pid
Blue Color

+Ve
-Ve

Red Color

White Color

White/yellow

Welded junction

recorder
Blue Color

+Ve
Red Color

-Ve
Compensating cable

Thermocouple wire

Accuracy : 0.75%

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‘S’ TYPE THERMOCOUPLE
Accuracy : 0.25 % • ‘S’ TYPE THERMOCOUPLE ARE THE STANDARD THERMOCOUPLES. • IT IS USED FOR CALIBRATING “K” Type THERMOCOUPLES. • MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION 90% PLATINUM + 10% RHODIUM PLATINUM OXIDATION RESISTANCE , SO MORE LIFE .
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COMPENSATING CABLE
COMPENSATING CABLE IS DEFINED AS A PAIR OF WIRES HAVING SUCH EMF TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS RELATED TO THE THERMOCOUPLE WITH WHICH THE WIRES ARE INTENDED TO BE USED, THAT WHEN PROPERLY CONNECTED TO THERMOCOUPLE THE EFFECTIVE REFERENCE JUNCTION IS IN EFFECT TRANSFERRED TO THE OTHER END OF THE WIRES. MATERIAL ==> +ve COPPER ( white ) -ve COPPER NICKEL (blue ) for “ K “ TYPE .

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P.I.D.
PID = PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL DERIVATIVE

• • • • •

PID FUNCTIONS BOTH AS PROGRAMMER AND CONTROLLER PID CONTROLLER CAN BE ZONE WISE PROGRAMME IS MADE IN SEGMENTS AS PER DIFFERENT STAGES OF HEAT TREATMENT DIGITAL DISPLAY IS AVAILABLE FOR PROGRAMME TEMPERATURE AND FURNACE TEMEPERATURE TYPICAL OR REPETITIVE HEAT TREATMENT CYCLE CAN BE STORED IN PID(PROGRAMMER)

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RECORDER
TYPES OF RECORDER
PAPERLESS -WITH COLOUR DISPLAY SCREEN ,HARD DISC AND FLOPPY DRIVE.

•WITH PAPER – GENERALLY USED IN HT. •24 CHANNEL – •12 CHANNEL –
COMPENSATING CABLES ARE CONNECTED BEHIND THE RECORDER SCREEN IN CHANNELS. •X-AXIS IS FOR TEMPERATURE (RANGE = 0 TO 1200’C) •THE SCALE ON X-AXIS IS NON-LINEAR. •Y-AXIS IS FOR GRAPH SPEED. •VARIOUS SPEED OF GRAPHS ARE 12.5, 25, 50, 100 MM / HOUR
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GRAPH PAPER
• GRAPH PAPERS ARE USED FOR PLOTTING THE FURNACE TEMPERATURE VIA THERMOCOUPLE. THEY ARE FITTED ON THE RECORDER. • GRAPH PAPER RECOMMENDED ON RECORDER ONLY TO BE USED • GRAPH PAPER ==> ET 201 CHINO MAKE, JAPAN ==> ET 001 CHINO MAKE, JAPAN • THE LENGTH OF ONE BUNDLE OF GRAPH PAPER IS GENERALLY 2000 MM. • DOTTING TYPE RECORDER INK (CHINO MAKE, JAPAN) IS USED IN RECORDER FOR PLOTTING OF GRAPH. USUALLY , 6 COLOURS ARE FILLED FOR PLOTTING.
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TYPICAL FURNACE

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( ZONE-2 )

( ZONE-4 )

( ZONE-6 )

( ZONE-8 )

BURNER

1640

1650

7900 (BOGIE WIDTH )

1650 3575 ( ZONE-1 )

3575 ( ZONE-3 )

14300.

3575 ( ZONE-5 )

3575 ( ZONE-7 )

FURNACE SKETCH

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9000

1. PROJECT NO: 2. SECTION NO :
9500

3. CHARGE NO : 4. H. T. REQ. NO :

BURNER 1195 7900 BOGGIE WIDTH 8700 1050

FURNACE SKETCH

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FIRE BRICK INSULATING CASTABLE

CERMIC BLANKET OUTER SHELL

GROUND LEVEL CERMIC FIBER SLABER BLOCK

HEATING ELEMENT BAFFLE

ROOF CERAMIC BLANKET

4150 ( REFRACTORY I/S )

3700 1/D OF BAFFLE

BLOWER

4020

125

250

TROLLEY STRUCTURE 1380

PIT FURNACE SKETCH

4961

1000

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LOCAL STRESS RELIEVING ( LSR )

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LOCAL STRESS RELIEVING WHY
• • Local SR to be done only when furnace SR not feasible When only certain components to be PWHT

HOW
• • Can be done by Electrical / Gas / diesel / Induction etc.. DETAILS ON ENSURING PWHT TEMP. IN WELDMENT AREA Soaking band(SB) = Widest weld width ‘x’+ ’t’ or 2 inches whichever is less from edge of weld Heating band width (HB) • Induction stress level • Through thickness criteria • SB + 4√ rt where r = Inside radius, t = thickness Insulation band width (IB) • Axial gradient 32 • HB + 4√ rt


LSR -BAND WIDTH
Soak band X Weld width ‘X’ + lesser of 1T or 2”

t
Heating band
Inside radius

Insulation band

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LOCAL STRESS RELIEVING SET UP
1. Provide multitonne roller on one end of vessel during LSR ofcircular seam when job is horizontal. 2. If both ends are open during LSR, provide insulation from inside. If not possible , prevent airflow so that temperature on inside surface do not drop down. 3. Spider/prop shall be provided in such a way that upper portion of spider / prop is not welded with inside surface to allow contraction/expansion of shell surface. 4. Spider/prop shall be between 200- 500mm from heating zone. 5. Temporary attachments, provided for holding insulation, shall be within soak band only. 6. Minimum two thermocouples shall be provided from inside, when accessible.
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LOCAL STRESS RELIEVING
SB+HB+IB

LSR of C/S

Spider or prop

No Welding at top Multitonne roller

200 to 500mm from heating band

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GOOD ENGG. PRACTICES FOR FURNACE CHARGES &LSR

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SUPPORTING ARRANGEMENTS
1. 2. Heat Treatment request shall be as per Annexure Minimum distance between floor of the furnace and lower most part of the job shall be 300mm. 3. The distance between burner flame and saddle support as well as furnace wall and job shall be 600mm. 4. Minimum 90 degree saddle to be used, however 120 degree saddle is desirable.
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SUPPORTING ARRANGEMENTS
450mm

burner
90 600mm
0

600mm

300mm(point no:2)

5. Saddle shall be arranged in such away that open end of the vessel is maximum 450mm from saddle support. 6. Saddle shall be located as close to spiders (temporarily arranged to control deformation) as possible.
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SUPPORTING ARRANGEMENTS

7. Spiders shall be provided as per annexure 8 Saddle supports shall be selected as per annexure.

9. Spiders or vertical prop shall be provided at open ends, center and below man way/nozzles above 24” 10. Avoid gap between saddle support and job surface

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SUPPORTING ARRANGEMENTS
Zero gap Supporting arrangement

11. Locking/clamping of job, restricting the movement (axial/lateral) during heat treatment shall be avoided. 12. All long nozzles projecting outside job surface shall be supported.
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SUPPORTING ARRANGEMENTS
13. Checklist shall be prepared and attached with HT request before furnace is fired. 14. Spot check report shall be filled by supervisor as per Annexure-2 during job is being heat treated. 15. Moonplate support and welding inside surface prior to release for Heat treatment as per Annexure 16. General idea about thermocouple locations and its attachments is as per Annexure
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GENERAL

1. Blocking the flame of the burner is not desirable 2. Burner shall have blue flame and not yellow 3. Flame shall not directly impinge on job 4. All burners shall be fired at a time 5. Keep all job nozzles open during heat treatment 6. Above “24” nozzles / manways shall be located towards bottom
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GENERAL

Gasket machined surface

Temp. support Furnace floor

7. Deoxidization agent shall be applied on all machined and gasket faces 8. Gasket / machined face of loose assemblies shall not be touching any object.
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THERMOCOUPLES ATTACHMENT UNIT

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SPECIAL NOTE
IF THE TEMPERATURE OF HEAT TREATMENT EXCEEEDS 650-DEGREE CENTIGRADE, THE

MATERIAL AND SIZE OF SPIDERS AND SUPPORTS TO BE DECIDED BY PLANNING AND APPROVED BY DESIGN.

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CODE EXTRACTS • FURNACE PWHT •LSR

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REQUIREMENT OF HEAT TREATMENT AS PER ASME-SEC VIII Div.-1
• SERVICE CONDITION • MATERIAL • THICKNESS • LOW TEMERATURE OPERATION • COLD WORKING • CUSTOMER SPEC.
(UCS-68) (UG-79) (UW-2) (UG-85, UW-40,UCS-56,UAT-80,UHA-32,UNF-79) (UG-85, UW-40,UCS-56,UAT-80,UHA-32,UNF-79)

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CODE EXTRACT FOR HEAT TREATMENT
( 1 ) The soak band shall contain the weld, heat affected zone and a portion of base metal adjacent to the weld being heat treated. The minimum width of this volume is the widest width of weld plus 1T or 2 inches, whichever is less, on each side or end of the weld. The term ‘T’ is the nominal thickness. ( 2 ) The operation of postweld heat treatment shall be performed either by heating the vessel as a whole in an enclosed furnace or heating the vessel in more than one heat in a furnace, provided the overlap of the heated sections of the vessel is at least 5 feet ( 1.5m). When this procedure is used, the portion outside of the furnace shall be shielded so that the temperature gradient is not harmful. The cross section where the vessel projects from the furnace shall not intersect a nozzle or other 48 structural discontinuity.

CODE EXTRACT FOR HEAT TREATMENT
( 3 ) When the vessel is required to be postweld heat treated, and it is not practicable to postweld heat treat the completed vessel as a whole or in two or more heats; any circumferential joints not provisionally heat treated may be thereafter locally postweld heat treated by heating such joints by any appropriate means that will assure the required uniformity. ( 4 ) While carrying out local postweld heat treatment, the soak band shall extend around the full circumference. The portion outside the soak band shall be protected so that the temperature gradient is not harmful. ( 5 ) Heating a circumferential band containing nozzles or other welded attachments in such a manner that the entire band shall be brought up uniformly to the required 49 temperature and held for the specified time.

CODE EXTRACT FOR HEAT TREATMENT
( 6 ) Where more than one pressure vessel or more pressure vessel part are postweld heat treated in one furnace charge, thermocouples shall be placed on vessels at the bottom, center, and top of the charge or in other zones of possible temperature variation so that the temperature indicated shall be true temperature for all vessels or parts in those zones. ( 7 ) Postweld heat treatment, When required, shall be done before the hydrostatic test and after any welded repairs. A preliminary hydrostatic test to reveal leaks prior to PWHT is permissible. ( 8 ) For pressure vessels or parts of pressure vessels being post weld heat treated in a furnace charge, it is the greatest weld thickness in any vessel or vessel part which has not previously been postweld heat treated. 50

CODE EXTRACT FOR HEAT TREATMENT
( 8 contd...) The nominal thickness is the total depth of the weld exclusive of any permitted weld reinforcement. • For groove weld, the nominal thickness is the depth of the groove. • For fillet welds, the nominal thickness is the throat dimension. • If a fillet weld is used in conjunction of groove weld, the nominal thickness is the depth of the groove or the throat dimension, Whichever is greater. • For stud welds, the nominal thickness shall be the diameter of the stud. ( 9 ) For P–1 material ( carbon steel), minimum holding temperature during postweld heat treatment shall 51 be 1100 Deg. F ( 593 Deg.c).

CODE EXTRACT FOR HEAT TREATMENT
P. NO. 1 ( CARBON STEEL) & 3 (LOW ALLOY STEEL) HOLDING TEMP. 1100 DEG. F(593’ C) NOM. THICKNE SS UPTO 2” SOAKING PERIOD 1 HR. PER INCH. , HOWEVER 15 MINUTES MINIMUM 2 HOURS , PLUS 15 MIN. FOR EACH ADDITIONAL INCH ABOVE 2” 2 HOURS , PLUS 15 MIN. FOR EACH ADDITIONAL INCH ABOVE 2”

OVER 2” TO 5” OVER 5 ”

* POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT IS MANDATORY ON P-NO.3 GR. NO. 3 MATERIAL IN ALL THICKNESSES.

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CODE EXTRACT FOR HEAT TREATMENT
( 10 ) Postweld heat treatment is mandatory in Following conditions : • For welded joints over 1. 5” nominal thickness. • For welded joints over 1.25” nom. Thickness through 1.5” nom. Thickness, unless preheat is applied at a min. Temperature of 200’F ( 94‘c ) during welding. • Vessels or parts of vessels constructed of base material with corrosion resistant integral or weld metal overlay cladding or applied corrosion resistant lining material shall be postweld heat treated when the base material is required to be postweld heat treated. In applying this rule, the determining thickness shall be the total thickness of base material. 53 • When the PWHT is a service requirement.

CODE EXTRACT FOR HEAT TREATMENT
( 11 ) Postweld heat treatment is not mandatory for carbon steel jobs (P1 material ) in Following conditions (UG2): • If groove welds is not over ½” in size or fillet weld with a throat thickness of ½” or less used for attaching non pressure parts to pressure parts provided preheat to a minimum temperature of 200’F is applied when the thickness of pressure Part exceeds 1.25”. • If studs are welded to pressure parts provided preheat to a minimum temperature of 200’F is applied when the thickness of the pressure parts exceeds 1.25”. • for corrosion resistant weld metal overlay cladding or for welds attaching corrosion resistant applied lining provided preheat to a minimum temperature of 200’f is maintained during application of the first layer when the thickness of the pressure 54 part exceeds 1.25”.

CODE EXTRACT FOR HEAT TREATMENT
• • The temperature of furnace shall not exceed 800’F Above 8000F( 4270C), the rate of heating shall not be more
0 0

( 4270C) at the time when the vessel or part is placed in it. than 400 F Per hour (200 C/Hour) divided by the maximum metal thickness of the shell or head plate in inches, but in no case more than 4000F Per hour( 2220C Per hour ). • During the heating period, There shall not be a greater variation in temperature throughout the portion of the vessel being heat treated than 2500F( 1390C) within any 15 feet ( 4.6m) interval of length.
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CODE EXTRACT FOR HEAT TREATMENT
• During the holding period, there shall not be a greater difference than 1500f ( 830c) between the highest and the lowest temperature the portion of the vessel being heated • During the heating & holding periods, the furnace atmosphere shall be so controlled as to avoid excessive oxidation of the surface of the vessel. The furnace shall be of such design as to prevent direct heat impingement of the flame on the vessel. • Above 8000F ( 4270C), The rate of cooling shall not be
0 0

more than 500 F Per hour (278 C/Hour) divided by the maximum metal thickness of the shell or head plate in inches, but in no case more than 500 F Per hour ( 278 C Per hour).
0 0

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CODE EXTRACT FOR HEAT TREATMENT
when it is impractical to postweld heat treat at the temperature specified in table mentioned in Sr.. No. 9, It is permissible to carry out the post weld heat treatments at lower temperatures for longer periods of time as shown in table below :
DECREASE IN TEMP. BELOW MIN. SPECIFIED TEMPERATURE IN ‘F 50 (10’C) 100(38’C) 150(68’C) 200(94’C) MINIMUM HOLDING TIME AT DECREASED TEMPERATURE (NOTE 1) 2 HOURS 4 HOURS 10 HOURS 20 HOURS NOTES ------2 2

NOTES : 1. MINIMUM HOLDING TIME FOR 1” THICKNESS OR LESS ; ADD 15 MINUTES PER INCH OF THICKNESS FOR THICKNESS GREATER THAN 1”. 2. THESE LOWER POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT TEMPERATURES PERMITTED ONLY FOR PNO.1 GROUP NO. 1 AND 2 MATERIALS. 57

AS PER B31.3 ( Table 331.1.1 )
BASE METAL WALL THICK ( Nom ) < 19mm > 19mm Alloy Steel ( Cr < ½% ) < 19mm > 19mm ALL MIN TENSILE ALL ALL < 490 Mpa ALL > 490 Mpa TEMP RANGE None 593-649’c None 593-718’c 593-718’c HOLDING TIME HR/IN Min …… 1 ….... 1 1 …… 1 …… 1 1

Carbon Steel

Alloy Steel ( ½% Cr < 2% )

< 13mm > 13mm ALL

< 490 Mpa ALL > 490 Mpa

None 704-746’c 704-746’c

….... 1 1

…… 2 2

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SELECTION OF SPIDERS AT OPEN ENDS FOR HEAT TREATMENT
SHELL THICKNESS
10000 9500 9000 8500 8000 7500 7000 ISMB 250 6500 ISMB 250 BOX SEC ISMB 250 100 100 10 20 30 50 60 90 40 70 80

Annexure-5

SHELL DIAMETER

6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 ISMB 125 1500 1000 500 10 20 30 ISMB 125 50 60 40 70 80 ISMB 150 90 ISMB 150 ISMB 150

SHELL THICKNESS
DATA FOR ABOVE CHANNELS: DESIGNATION WT/ MTR.(KG) WEB HT FLG WD FLG THK WEB THK ISMB 125 13 125 75 7.6 4.4 ISMB 150 14.9 150 80 7.6 4.8 ISMB 250 37.3 250 125 12.5 6.9 ISMC 250 30.4 250 80 14.1 7.1

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HT REQUEST

Annexure-7

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HT CHARGE

Annexure-8

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THANK YOU

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